Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Thinking Outside The Box Essay

We live in the age of new technologies, in an age of rapid progress and every successful employer seeks to meet all the requirements of the present time namely control and improve the quality of services, to reduce execution time and be the best in the business, despite not less intelligent competitors. 1. What external factors were affecting UPS’s HR practices? How did UPS respond to these trends? Workers of the UPS has a responsible attitude towards the quality of their services. They daily take care about these services, and also prepare highly qualified specialists. One of the problems that they are facing is that a large number of people (baby-boomers) are close to retirement age. UPS has taken steps to be sure that they will have driver which will be ready for meeting the demand. The company staff is hiring and training some 25.000 drivers over the next five year to replace retiring Baby Boomers. Based upon the premise that younger drivers learn best by technology and hands on training, UPS has created several simulations and a videogames designed to aid in driver training. 2. Why is efficiency and safety so important to UPS? What role do the company’s industrial engineers play in how employees do their work? The answer lies in the amount of people and companies with which UPS operates. UPS sends more than 15m parcels in more than 200 countries every day. Because of competition (i.e. the U.S. Postal Service, DHL, and Federal Express), for UPS, it’s all about speed, accuracy, and safety. UPS must keep cost low and customer satisfaction high. To increase the productivity of drivers, UPS has used their industrial engineers to design more efficient routes, loading & unloading procedures, and employee policies to help get the most from their employees in the field. 3. What changes did the company make to its driver training program? In addition to learning the company’s ‘340 Methods,’ applicants play a videogame where they’re in the driver’s seat and must identify obstacles. From computer simulations, they move to â€Å"Clarksville,† a mock  village with miniature houses and faux businesses. There, they drive a real truck and â€Å"must successfully execute five deliveries in 19 minutes.† And, in the interest of safety and efficiency, trainees learn to carefully walk on ice with the slip and fall simulator. 4. What advantages and drawbacks do you see to this training approach for (a) the trainee and (b) the company? It appears that the use of simulations and the other new programs implemented by UPS would have good transfer to work the drivers would be doing in the field. This is an advantage for the trainee and the company. A potential disadvantage would be if the applicant was not familiar with new technology, such as computer games, or other forms of electronic learning. These applicants may be successful in the job, but may not show proficiency in training due to the technological nature of the training. For the company, such programs are expensive but that can be balanced by the benefit of having a better trained workforce.

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Advantages And Disadvantages Of Shopping Online Essay

Who does not like to shop? Most of the people likes to shop but some people are so lazy that they don’t even have time for shopping. The good news is that, now it is possible to shop from your home, whenever you want, just by clicking on the internet. Life never has been so much easier! Recently shopping online has become very popular because of the vast availability of internet and online banking. Millions of products are sold all over the world through online. Because it’s numerous benefit, nowadays many people prefer to shop online, even though you have to be carefull, shopping online has got many disadvantages as well. Jacob, my little brother is planning to buy some games by the internet, while my father tells him all the advantages and disadvantages of shopping online. When you buy online, some of the advantages are that you save time – Do you have the specific list that you want to buy? With just a couple of clicks of the mouse, you can purchase your shopping orders and instantly move to other important things, which can save time. You can also save fuel and energy, one of the advantages of shopping online is that there is no need for vehicles, so no purchase of fuel necessary. Admit it, it is tiresome to shop from one location and transfer to another location. What is worse is that there are no available stocks for the merchandise you want to buy. In online shopping, you do not need to waste your energy when buying. The advanced innovation of search engine allows you to easily check prices and compare with just a few clicks. It is very straightforward to conduct price comparisons from one online shopping website to another. This gives you the freedom to determine which online store offers the most affordable item you are going to buy. Before buying online, you must be sure to put all your personal information and correct address. Besides that, Online shopping stores are open round the clock of 24/7, 7 and 365 days. The availability of online stores give you the freedom to shop at your own pace and convenience. When buying items online, there are no long lines you have to endure, just to buy your merchandise. Every online store is designed with unique individual ordering features to purchase the item. Read more:Â  Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Shopping

Monday, July 29, 2019

Health Administarion Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Health Administarion - Essay Example The benefits of the project involve making the staying of the patients in the hospital comfortable and ensuring that they receive proper treatment. The individuals who benefits from this project are patients, nurses, employees, and the hospital administration. The sort of preliminary data to be collected when designing the project include the language of which patients speak at home, the number of times nurses treat the patient with courtesy. Moreover, the questions also find out whether the patient will recommend the hospital to an ally and family and whether they required the assistance of the nurses to go the washroom. The risks of the goal of the project may be caused when patients fail to cooperate and adhere to the hospitals policies and regulations (HCAHPS Preparation and Improvement Library Courseware, 1). Developing hospital’s reimbursement mostly in pain management, toileting, and responsiveness promotes exceptional health care practices among individuals in society. The individuals benefiting from this goal are populace, the hospital, and the government of the region. The benefit of the aim and objective include; be aware of the residents health in terms of communal wellness, ailment, and medical care and comprehending the functions of political affairs, guiding principles, law, rule, and ethics in the current healthcare diligence. Examples of preliminary data collected when designing the project include; the number of individuals falling sick after a certain period, those practicing healthful life and use inventive instructional techniques to convey outstanding and reliable educational results based on the industrys and constituencys requirements. The goal ensures that the health care departments operates its business amicably without harassing patients, but provide apt services. They do this by ensuring that virtues such as honesty and faithfulness are practiced when

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Contemporary Policy Environmental Economics Essay

Contemporary Policy Environmental Economics - Essay Example Russian then President Putin ordered to stop supply of gas by Russian government owned Gas Company namely â€Å"Gazprom† to Ukraine. This had sent shock waves to EU’s administration. Putin’s move was politically motivated as Ukraine wanted to free from Russia and to align with the West. Putin’s action clearly demonstrated bully-boy political manoeuvres to put pressure on Ukraine’s Prime Minister Victor Yushchenko to realign with Russia again. Some critics argued that move was based on fiscal reasons to put force on Ukraine to defer market price for the gas supplied from Russia and to shell out the lion’s share of revenue it generating from key European- Russian pipeline system it operates. Though , the supplies were resumed within few days due to pressure exerted by EU on Russia , the loss of about 40% of gas during peak winter season and this made France and Germany to summon emergency EU ministerial meetings . The fact is that Europe is hea vily relying on Russian gas whereas Russia is heavily relying on European market, technology and goods. Realising the significance of the issue, EU immediately revealed its â€Å"European Energy Policy† to tackle the future energy supply crisis. As a result, EU announced obligatory renewable energy target for each EU nation and hence, the overall EU will get 20% of its renewable source energy including for transport, electricity, aviation, cooling and heating and for UK, the target has been set at 15% by 2020. This research essay is going to analyse how UK government is going to achieve this target. It also suggests measures to be taken by UK government to achieve this target by discussing the various aspect of the research subject. Total power consumption in UK in the year 2004 amounted to 325,000 GWh which had been mainly manufactured from power plants using fuels like coal, gas and nuclear. In 2004, renewable

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Just answer an essay question Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Just answer an question - Essay Example Value hedonism is a basic principle of Utilitarianism, which provides that the rightness or wrongness of an action is determined by the intrinsic value that would be obtained from such an action, where the intrinsic value is measurable based on the happiness index. Thus, based on this principle, the Ford Motor Company’s decision not to make an improvement on its defective gas tank design because the costs of improving the design outweighed its benefits is right and moral, since it gave happiness to the company. On the other hand consequentialism is an important aspect of the Utilitarianism, where the rightness or wrongness of an act is also judged, based on how good or bad the consequences it produces are. The fundamental aspect of Utilitarianism regarding consequentialism is the fact that; good intentions do not matter in determining the rightness of an action, as long as good consequences are obtainable. Therefore, based on this principle, the Ford Motor Company’s decision is good, since despite the intention of the action, the consequences were good, since the company did not incur the extra costs. However, through applying the Utilitarianism concept of universality, all individuals to be affected by the consequences of an action are deemed morally relevant. Thus, considering the Ford Motor Company’s decision would impact negatively on the customers of the company, then it is morally wrong. This view point is emphasized by the impartialism principle of Utilitarianism, which requires that all individual affected by the action should count equally, as regards the consequences of an action. This being the case, the Ford Motor Company’s decision is immoral, since its consequences do not grant the customers of the company equal happiness, as it does to the

Friday, July 26, 2019

Final paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 6

Final paper - Essay Example Additionally, around 6% of the Palestinians are Christians and only 1% of the Palestinians are represented by other small religious groups. Israel is an official Jewish country and it is situated in the Middle East. Additionally, Palestine comprises of two physically separate groups; the Muslim and Arab territories and they are located alongside the Israel’s West Bank (Gaza and Jordan River). Moreover, all these territories are dependent. Officially, no internationally recognised border separates Palestine and Israel. The lack of a demarcating border has led to the two countries claiming that they own the lands they currently occupy, and this has resulted in disputes for centuries now.1 The decades-long course of action aimed at resolving the border conflict between the two religious factions led to the creation of another overlapping conflict; managing the extremely unpleasant coexistence between the Israelis and Palestinians. The unpleasant coexistence has led to the Israelis military occupation of the Palestinian territory, while at the same time the Palestinian armed groups terrorise the Israelis mercilessly. Those two conflict dimensions were made worse by the long existence history of violence and bitterness between the two groups. Essentially, it is not the existence of distrust and resentment that usually make reconciliation between these two groups ineffective, but the existence of extremists who usually oppose any negotiation and want to subjugate or even destroy the other side. Moreover, when these extremists control the peace conversation and process, they usually ensure that they derail the whole process.2 In other words, the conflict between the Palestinians and Israelis has advanced into a horrible cycle of conflict and the peace process continues to look less possible each breaking day. In most cases, these two groups are blamed equally for perpetuating conflict because many people, in both sides, enjoy squandering peace as well

Ethics in business (case study) Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Ethics in business (case study) - Essay Example The organization expects compliance with its standards of integrity throughout the organization and will not tolerate employees who achieve results at the cost of violation of law or who deal unscrupulously. It is the policy of the organization that all transactions will be accurately reflected in its books and records by the employees. This, of course, means that falsification of books and records and the creation and maintenance of any off-the record bank accounts are strictly prohibited. The organization anticipates sincerity from employees at all points and observance to its regulations and internal controls. A negativity which might result when the employees obscure information from the organization’s officials or the auditors is that other employees might get an idea that the organizational policies and internal controls can be overlooked when they are problematic. It is the corporation’s policy to make full, fair, accurate, timely and understandable disclosure in reports and documents that the corporation files with the Securities and Exchange Commission and in other public communications. All employees are responsible for reporting material information known to them to higher management so that the information will be available to senior officials responsible for making disclosure decisions. A code of ethics is developed in order to provide the members of the organizations with some broad ethical statements that will guide them through their professional lives and also to identify relevant considerations when ethical uncertainties arise (Anonymous 2008). It facilitates the employees to share common values and a common vision. The development of code of ethics defines behaviors that are both accepted and acceptable in an organization (MacDonald 2009). It further assists in establishing a better organizational culture which would improve the public image of the organization. They also develop a sense of community and belonging

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Alexander the great Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Alexander the great - Research Paper Example The Hellenistic period acted as a milestone for the revolution of the Greek society from inward looking and restricted city-states to a sophisticated and open culture. This culture spread to the whole of Southwest Asia and Eastern Mediterranean. The age of Hellenism, which started in 800 B.C, lasted up to the time of Alexander the Great’s death in 323 B.C. (Stoneman 19). The Hellenistic thought can be associated with Alexander the Great, who made significant contributions that shaped the Hellenistic period. With his numerous conquests, Alexander the Great helped in the development of Hellenistic thought. Alexander’s main contribution to the Hellenistic thought rests in his desire for conquest (Stoneman 21). Through his military conquests, he created an empire that encouraged learning and cultural exchange. He also contributed to remarkable Hellenistic ideas that have lasted up to today through governance, forms of art, and government. Moreover, he led to the creation of an empire that allowed people to spread and blend; this promoted learning. Thus, Alexander the Great paved way for the spreading of Hellenistic thought and ideas. As a way of thinking, Hellenism has some merits and demerits. The pros of Hellenistic thought include the remarkable contributions in the fields of math, medicine, mechanical science, and philosophy. Moreover, Hellenism promoted trade and exchange of cultures and ideas. In math, Hellenistic thought led to numerous developments in geometry (Perry 66). In medicine, Hellenism paved way for several discoveries such as the use of dissections to distinguish between nerves and arteries. In the field of mechanical science, Hellenism contributed to the invention of the steam engine. In philosophy, Hellenism led to the emergence of new ideas such as Stoicism, which emphasized on the need to perform one’s duty and persevering

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

The Traditional Method of Making a Deed Research Paper

The Traditional Method of Making a Deed - Research Paper Example Basically, when one terminates an agreement to the detriment of another, promissory estoppel lies in hand as a defence to support the promise according to Smith. Under this rule, a claimant who incurs a detriment by doing an act, making a promise however small, provided that it has been agreed that she should do the act and receives something in return under a limited legal principle can be sued for promissory estoppel. In Combe v. Combe , the Court of Appeal held that the doctrine of promissory estoppel cannot be used to create a cause of action where a husband’s promise to pay alimony to the wife at  £100 p.a. does not give her the right to sue for that money even though she had relied on the promise. In a society where moral conventions allow a promisor to enter into a negotiation, a promisor is bound to his promise. The law, however, stresses that enforcing promises is a right when they are given in exchange for other promises or consideration. The main purpose of implan ting consideration is to discourage improper pressure and coercion and to distinguish the nature of the promise. It is also interesting to see how the doctrine of promissory estoppel brings the law of consideration into sharp relief. Although it is not overtly recognized by the English system, many of the reasons for requiring consideration do not apply to the situation of variation as in Williams v Roffey Bros & Nicholls. The basic position still considers, however, the doctrine of promissory estoppel varying from only one side of the contract.

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Foundations for Change and Linear Regression Scatterplot Assignment

Foundations for Change and Linear Regression Scatterplot - Assignment Example When this is the case there seems to be urgency for change in the management and the employees. This can be established by considering what else is happening within the company (Johnson and William, 2001). Managerial leaders must look at the broad organization beyond ones division or division to establish whether it is the right time for change. When everyone understands the need for change and the benefits that the company and individual employees will get if the change is successfully implemented then the organization is ready for change. Most of the times the management will be quick to explain how the organization will benefit without explaining how the individual employee will benefit and this causes lack of readiness from their end (Banutu-Gomez and Banutu-Gomez, 2007). Change is also possible provided that there is readiness from both employees and the top level management. This is possible by explaining the need for change to both and reaching out to them for their input. Get to know what is working from their end, what is not working and what can change. Basically, the organization will only be ready if both the employees and the management are ready to be actively engaged in the process. The determination and availing of all that is required in the successful implementation of change is crucial. Will there be need of new technology? Do employees need training on a new process? Is there need to slow down the process of implementing change to allow employees to ‘catch up’? Before an organization begins the process if making changes in its operations, it must undertake the following important steps. The top management in every organization must seek the support of their stakeholders if they want to initiate a change within the organization. This is mainly due to the fact that the stakeholders have a lot of day on the resources and management of the organization hence they must approve of any change

Monday, July 22, 2019

Pricing Strategies Essay Example for Free

Pricing Strategies Essay Competition based pricing Setting the price based upon prices of the similar competitor products. Competitive pricing is based on three types of competitive products: * Products having lasting distinctiveness from competitor’s product. Here we can assume * The product has low price elasticity. * The product has low cross elasticity. * The demand for the product will rise. * Products have perishable distinctiveness from competitor’s product, assuming the product features are medium distinctiveness. * Products have little distinctiveness from competitor’s products. Assuming that: * The product has high price elasticity of demand. * The product has some cross elasticity of demand. * No expectation that the demand of the product will rise. Cost plus pricing Cost plus pricing is the simplest pricing method. The firm calculates the cost of producing the product and adds on a percentage (profit) to that price to give the selling price. This method although has two flaws; it takes no account of demand and there is no way of determining if potential customers will purchase the product at the calculated price. AC + Profit markup It is lower than profit maximizing level of pricing Price = Cost of production + Margin of profit Creaming or skimming Selling a product at a high price, sacrificing high sales to gain a high profit, therefore ‘skimming’ the market. Usually employed to reimburse the cost of investment of the original research into the product – commonly used in electronic markets when a new range, such as DVD players, are firstly dispatched into the market at a high price. This strategy is often used to target â€Å"early adopters† of a product or service. These early adopters are relatively less price sensitive because either their need for the product is  more than others or they understand the value of the product better than others. This strategy is employed only for a limited duration to recover most of investment made to build the product. To gain further market share, a seller must use other pricing tactics such as economy or penetration. This method can come with some setbacks as it could leave the product at a high price to competitors. Limit pricing To set a price low enough to ensure that new entrants are discouraged to enter the market. A limit price is the price set by a monopolist to discourage economic entry into a market, and is illegal in many countries. The limit price is the price that the entrant would face upon entering as long as the incumbent firm did not decrease the output. The limit price is often lower than the average cost of production or just low enough to make entering not profitable. The quantity produced by the incumbent firm to act as a deterrent to entry is usually larger than would be optimal for a monopolist, but might still produce higher economic profits than would be earned under perfect competition. The problem with limit pricing as strategic behavior is that once the entrant has entered the market, the quantity used as a threat to deter entry is no longer the incumbent firm’s best response. This means that for limit pricing to be an effective deterrent to entry, the threat must in some way be made credible. A way to achieve this is for the incumbent firm to constrain itself to produce a certain quantity whether entry occurs or not. An example of this would be if the firm signed a union contract to employ a certain (high) level of labour for a long period of time. Loss leader Loss leader: Basic concept in the majority of cases, this pricing strategy is illegal under EU and US Competition rules. No market leader would wish to sell below cost unless this is part of its overall strategy. The idea of selling at a loss may appear to be in the public interest and therefore often not challenged. Only when the leader pushes up prices, it then becomes suspicious. Loss leadership can be similar to predatory pricing or cross subsidization; both seen as anti-competitive practices. Market-orientated pricing Setting a price based upon analysis and research compiled from the targeted market. Also with the cost price. Penetration pricing This price is deliberately set at a low level to gain customer’s interest and establishing a foot-hold in the market. Price discrimination Setting a different price for the same product in different segments of the market. For example, this can be for different ages or for different opening times, such as cinema tickets. Such as market orientated pricing is also a very simple form of pricing used by very new businesses. What is involves is, setting a price of product/service according to research conducted on your target market. It holds good in case of: price sensitive consumers existence of large mass market intence competition in the market.

Investigating the winners and losers of globalisation

Investigating the winners and losers of globalisation Globalisation over the past hundred years has undoubtedly made the world more interconnected including closer societies, politics, economies, cultures and the environment. The world has seen all these dimensions influenced by the process of globalisation and the resultant winners and losers. Primarily, the economies of nations around the globe have experienced the most significant globalisation process, with the foundation of this dating back to the 14th century. The globalisation of economies has resulted in numerous winners including most western nations, some third world labourers and international institutions. There have also been many losers including most third world countries, the environment and ironically even most western countries. Thus, it can be said that the globalisation process of integrating nations economies has had both positive and negative effects on the world. The globalisation of nations economies has undeniably improved the lives of millions across the planet, in both developed and developing countries. Economic globalisation can be defined as the process associated with increasing economic openness, growing economic interdependence and deepening economic integration between countries in the world economy.  [1]  By far the major winner from this process has been the citizens and corporations of developed countries. This is due to many factors that have come to fruition in the later half of the twentieth century. Specifically, the roles of transnational corporations, global financial institutions and consumerism all have ties to economic globalisation. Transnational or multinational corporations are corporations that have a headquarters in one country and operate in several other countries. These have been influential in globalisation and have brought much wealth to developed countries. The largest transnational corporation in the wor ld currently is Wal-Mart Stores, with sales for 2003 reaching 256.33 billion dollars.  [2]  With a sales figure of this proportion, Wal-Mart took in more money than many developed nations total gross domestic product. Charles E. Wilson who was a Chairman of General Motors said Whats good for General Motors in good for the country.  [3]  This quote highlights the positive aspects of globalisation for developed countries as often when transnational corporations win so do developed countries. Despite the criticisms that surround transnational corporations, they have been directly investing in developing countries and with their expansion into these markets, have actually raised the standard of living in many third world countries. The fourth largest non-financial transnational corporation, Vodafone has a total 207,458 million dollars worth of assets, where a staggering 187,792 million of that is made up of foreign assets. This shows the corporations expansion into core and periphery countries, bringing technology, employment and higher standards of living. Another example of a transnational corporation creating winners with the globalisation process is McDonalds. This is a prime example of globalization in both the economic and cultural sense, with nearly 50 million people around the world being served daily. The primary economic winner in recent times from McDonalds globalisation process has been East Asia, as in 1975 when McDonalds opened it first restaurant in Hong Kon g, it brought with it a high standard of professional service and the first restaurant to continually offer a clean eating environment, which customers came to demand from all restaurants later.  [4]   Another lesser-known winner of the globalisation process, are the third world workers employed by transnational corporations. Although the western world sees sweatshops as immoral and unethical, the labourers who work in these places are often being paid a higher wage than most of their fellow citizens. In 2005 in Honduras a developing country, where sweatshops are commonplace, the average apparel worker earned $13.10 per day; this is compared to the 44% of the countrys population that live on less than $2 per day.  [5]  This means through the economic globalisation process and cross border corporations, workers in developing countries have the opportunities to survive and beat the poverty cycle. The International Monetary Fund and World Bank have both actively been helping the developing countries. This has been occurring through loans, economic re-development and economic management. Both these institutions have played major roles in the economic assistance of developing countries over the past fifty years. A recent example is the World Bank implementing policies to help eradicate poverty through achieving universal primary education for all children. In 2006 a report showed that the United Nations and World Bank invested heavily in government schools in Ethiopia, as a result primary enrolment more than doubled from 22% in 1990 to 47% in 2004.  [6]  The globalisation of economies has resulted in many winners from the developed nations while also improving improved the standard of living in many developing nations. While there have been many winners from economic globalisation, there have also been and will continue to be many losers. The primary loser from globalisation has been the developing countries, who have supplied the labour and raw material necessary to fuel globalisation. In many third world countries, globalisation has had the negative effect of creating sweatshops, where workers are paid low wages to do hard manual labour in often poor conditions. These sweatshops are run by transnational corporations, that have the aim of minimising costs by taking advantage of the relaxed labour laws often in developing countries. An example of a transnational corporation that uses sweatshops is Nike, as its shoes are made in many Asian countries at a low cost and then sold in western countries for a profit. After the goods are sold and the wages paid, the transnational corporations take any profit made back to their headquarters or home country. This leaves the developing countries in poverty as the workers are being exploited for a minimal wage while the country sees very little of the profits. Another, problem associated with economic globalisation, is that citizens of developing countries are leaving their countries in order to achieve higher education, better job prospects and generally higher standards of living. This problem is called the brain drain and has significant economic implications for the countries involved. In the African nation of Ghana, an estimated 68 percent of all trained medical staff left the country between 1993 and 2000.  [7]  A large majority of developing countries are experiencing the brain drain problem and it is further fueling the poverty cycle, in which globalisation is playing a negative role. However, not only are the developing countries affected by economic globalisation, the developed countries that are often at the centre of globalisation also experience problems. A major loser that has resulted from the integration of economies specifically in times of economic downturn has been all economies, including both developing and developed. This is caused by the increasing integration and interconnectedness of economies all over the world, a problem arises when one nations economy goes into downturn and then due to the integration causes others to go into downturn also. The most recent examples of where this has occurred was the East Asian Financial Crisis of 1997 and the Global Financial Crisis of 2008. In both these situations, a crisis in one countrys economy, which was closely interlinked to the world economy, caused severe economic repercussions throughout the world. A subprime lending crisis in the US housing market eventually blew up to trigger the single largest eco nomic downturn since the Great Depression of the 1930s. The effects of this crisis are still being felt around the world today, with trillions of dollars being wiped off share markets, banking institutions collapsing and huge national debts. The problem associated with the integration of nations economies will be an ever present problem as economic globalisation increases in the future. It can be seen that the primary losers from economic development are developing countries; however, developed countries can also be losers. Another significant loser from economic globalisation is the environment; this problem affects all countries on the planet and has been getting worse over time. The environment has been abused and neglected since the beginning of the industrial revolution and today is currently at a precipice. Developed countries are the worst offender when it comes to the abuse of the environment. In recent times, the economies of China, India, Russia and Brazil have started rivaling the world powerhouse economies of America and Europe in terms of carbon dioxide pollution and environmental degradation. The primary environmental concern of recent has been the effects of increased carbon dioxide emissions and the effects on the level of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The resultant effect of a buildup in greenhouse gases will have serious problems for everyone including rising sea levels, extreme weather events, polluted oxygen and many more problems  [8]  . These problems have ties to economi c globalisation; this is due to many developed countries and transnational companies using limited resources and resultant pollution. Economic globalisation has been the driving force for sustained economic growth in both developed and developing countries. Along with this the need of transnational corporations to gain greater profits and expand into new markets has further increased the consumption of scarce resources and increased emissions. This is evident by the fact that developed countries are some of the worst polluters with America, Canada, Australia and New Zealand the top four emitters of carbon dioxide per capita and population in 2000.  [9]  However, developing countries are also increasing their emissions and speeding up their depletion of natural resources. In Brazil between 1978 and 1988, annual rainforest clearance rose from 78,000km squared a year to 230,000km squared.  [10]  The Amazon rainforest is considered the lungs of the earth and provide the vital ta sk of helping to remove pollution from the atmosphere. This means that the increasing economic globalisation has continued to assist developed countries achieve higher levels of consumerism and has helped developing countries achieve record levels of economic growth, which has actually had a very negative effect on the environment. This negative effect means that both developed countries and developing countries are both losers as globalisation makes it mark on the earths environment. There are positive aspects of globalisation as seen in developed countries, also now many developing countries are to some degree enjoying the benefits. In saying that, developing countries are still being generally exploited by transnational corporations and the developed world. Similarly, the planets environment is still being expended at a faster rate than it is being replenished or replaced and will surely cause problems for future generations. Therefore, if changes are not made to the mode and medium of economic globalisation, the costs will soon outweigh the benefits.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

An introduction to kinesiology

An introduction to kinesiology In this chapter, basic kinesiology definitions are introduced and problem-solving approaches in kinesiology tasks are classified as quantitative or qualitative movement analysis. Definition: Derived from the Greek word kinesis meaning motion and the suffix -ology or -logy from the Greek logos or logia (meaning field of study). It is the scientific study of the anatomy, physiology, and mechanics of body movement. Introduction to Kinesiology You might think that kinesiology is a modern day science, however, you will find out in this text that the practice, study and application of kinesiology can be traced back thousands of years to ancient Roman times. In fact, many aspects of physical movement training are documented in chariot races and gladiator fights, where fighters trained and chose between different weapons, wheel sizes etc. Throughout history, particular in wars there are abundant examples of the use of kinesiology to improve fighting, fitness and protection. Kinesiology encompasses human anatomy, physiology, biomechanics, exercise physiology, exercise psychology and sociology, history, and philosophy of sport. Kinesiology is the study of human movement across a range of tasks including exercise, daily living, play, sport, and work. The primary aims of general kinesiology are 1) Understanding the human bodys physiological and psychological responses to acute short-term physical activity. 2) Understanding the various adaptations to the human body to chronic or long-term physical activity. 3) Understanding the cultural, social, and historical importance of physical activity. 4) Understanding the mechanical qualities of movement. 5) Understanding the processes that control movement and the factors that affect the acquisition of more skills, and 6) Understanding the psychological effects of physical activity on human behavior. In this text we are mostly interested in kinesiology as it relates to human movement. So, we will focus more on joints, bones, muscles, levers, forces etc. as opposed to the social or psychological implications. Key Kinesiology Terms Biomechanics: The science and study of the mechanics of a living body. It is an examination of the forces exerted by muscles and gravity on the skeletal structure and the effects produced by such forces. Biomechanics, as a sports science, applies the laws of mechanics and physics to human performance in order to gain a greater understanding of performance in athletic events through modeling, simulation, and measurement. For example, the forces generated during acceleration of a 100m running race. Mechanics: A branch of physics that deals with the effects of energy and forces on the motion of physical objects. Mechanics, in the field of sports studies, is concerned with the behavior of physical bodies when subjected to forces or displacements, and the subsequent effect of those bodies on their environment. For example, the study of materials used in hockey sticks or tennis rackets. Statics: The study of objects in a constant state of motion, which means they may be in motion or stationary. Statics is a branch of physics that is concerned with the analysis of various loads on physical systems. For example, the forces required to lift an Olympic barbell. Dynamics: The study of objects subjected to acceleration/deceleration. Dynamics is from the branch of classical mechanics in physics which is involved with the motion of bodies; it is divided into two other branches, kinematics and kinetics. An example for this category would be the flight speed and path of a baseball after it has been struck. Kinematics: The study and measurement of motion. The variables of kinematics describe the motion of objects in respect to space and time without considering the effects of forces that bring out the motion. Two types of applications are applied in kinematics. First, translational (or curvilinear kinematics), which is the description of the motion in space of a point along a trajectory. This path can be linear, or curved. There are three basic concepts that are required for understanding translational motion; displacement, velocity and acceleration. (These concepts will be reviewed in later chapters). Secondly, there are rotational motion kinematics which describe the rotation of an object and involves the definition and use of the following three quantities: angular position, angular velocity and angular acceleration. Kinematics has application in studying the acceleration of a cyclist or throwing a javelin, where there is a change in the position of the object over time. Kinetics: The study of the forces that act to produce motion. Kinetics, as opposed to kinematics, is concerned with the motion of bodies under the action of forces. A branch from the study of human biomechanics, a kinetic analysis may include questions such as whether the amount of force the muscles are producing is optimal for the intended purpose of the movement. The term kinetics is not widely used today and is often collectively studied under the term dynamics. Anthropometrics: The study of the human body dimensions. Anthropometrics are related to the dimensions and the weights of body segments. Factors include size, shape, weight and other important considerations in a kinetic analysis. For example, you will notice that basketball players are generally tall and gymnasts are generally short. These anthropometrics, or body shapes, create advantages within certain sports. Kinesiology: Literally, the study of human movement. Quantitative and Qualitative Measurement Within the field of kinesiology we evaluate and score performances in two main ways. For example, we may time a runner over 100M and we give a 10M diver a score based on how much we liked the dive. We refer to these assessments as either quantitative or qualitative. Quantitative simply refers to empirical or hard numbers, while qualitative refers is more subjective and evaluates form and style regardless of the elements of time of distance etc. Let us look at each in more detail. Qualitative Analysis Definition: Describes the human movement based on its constituent elements. The word qualitative refers to a description and analysis of a human movement based on and involving non-numeric terminology. Many professions involving scientific research use qualitative analysis as a thorough and detailed way of improving human movement and performance. Good qualitative analysis uses all the senses to gather information about the strengths and weaknesses of the movement. The most commonly used approach of qualitative analysis is through basic visual observation. It is through this observation that information on a specific motion is gained, recorded and analyzed. This analysis can also help identify various mechanical factors that may or may not need to be altered in an effort to improve performance in the given activity. The ability for a scientist, coach and athlete to be able to observe the performance in slow motion is a valuable tool for improving ones performance. The details of qualitative analyses vary. Generally, one can simply state a movement as a woman was running quickly down the track. It might also be stated that the same woman is running quickly down the track on the balls of their feet, leaning slightly to the right. This alternate way of describing the same movement is providing a more detailed qualitative analysis of the movement. Qualitative problems arise during our everyday daily activities, with a large part of our lives being devoted to the solution of problems. Sport and performance are no different. To effectively analyze a movement, it is necessary to start off with a framework and list of questions. The questions stated can either be more of a simple and general question or can also contain a much more detailed and specific questions. Below are some examples of both general and specific questions. Table 1.1: General vs. Specific Qualitative Analysis General Specific Is the movement performed with proper execution? -Is the release of the swing taking place at the instant of full arm extension? -Why is this sprinter not getting a faster time? -Does the strengthening of the quadriceps significantly improve hip rotation and turnover speed? Planning and Performing a Qualitative Analysis Once you have identified the question(s) the next step is to collect the data. For the coach, therapist or PE teacher, this is qualitative visual observation data. The movement is first carefully observed and written or mental notes are made. Planning is required to ensure observation is done from optimal distance and perspective. As the level and complexity of the skill increase, the level of planning increases. In planning a qualitative analysis, a process occurs with the main goal being a further refinement of the original question. The first and final step both lead to refinement of the original question being asked. Figure 1.1: Qualitative Analysis Process (*Referenced and re-created from Basic Biomechanics by Susan J. Hall) Following this procedure in carrying out a qualitative analysis will allow the researcher to optimally collect observations. Throughout the analysis, one usually finds questions will constantly arise. Laying out the foundation of the analysis will prevent faulty or inadequate information. Procedures for Qualitative Analysis First and foremost, the procedure begins with identifying the problem or question. Whether the analyst is looking to answer a question pertaining to a how a sprinters gait is negatively impacting their running style, why a baseball player is having difficulty making contact with the ball, or why a tennis player is having wrist pain. The ability to answer these questions begins with biomechanical knowledge. Once the problem is identified there are two main steps. Firstly, make proper decisions necessary to carry out the analysis and secondly to observe and collect the observations from the performers movement. When a movement is executed, the analyst needs to determine the appropriate way to fully optimize the viewing process. This decision is determined depending upon whether the analyst is going to rely on basic visual observation or will they be using a video camera. Videotape allows both the analyst and the performer to view the movement, as well as repeated viewings. Details like viewing angle, environmental modifications, slow-motion, etc. are all factors that play into the decision making process. It is from the videotaping of the performance that the analyst and the performer can both sit down and begin to collect observations. Feedback from the video, analyst and performer are all collected, and reviewed. Despite the main question being stated in the beginning, occasionally other questions may arise during the collection process. Observations made may suggest new questions. This is when the analyst needs to go back and focus on the critical aspects of the movement and the biomechanical error that was first identified. Finally, once all movements and performances have been carefully observed, the analyst begins to interpret the observations. The expert analyst is highly knowledgeable in biomechanical movements and is able to identify and diagnose errors. With all the combined information that was collected in the performance the analysis can now end the analysis, make refinements to the main question and/or problem and finally assess, correct and improve the human movement. Both knowledge of the specific biomechanical purposes of the movement and careful planning are necessary for effective qualitative analysis. Quantitative Analysis The second form of analysis is quantitative analysis. Definition: The use of measurable variables (e.g. size, time, number) to describe performances. In quantitative analysis we classify features, count them, and even construct more complex statistical models in an attempt to explain what is observed. The goals of quantitative analysis are to provide precise descriptions of the mechanisms of human problem solving, the causes of error, differences between skill performance and with the intent to improve human performance. We use variables such as force, speed, distance and time. The quantitative approach helps to eliminate subjective description and relies on data from the use of different instruments. It is generally a more scientific, publishable, and predictable analysis than the qualitative approach that implies that the movement is described without the use of numbers. This approach is widely used in coaching and during the teaching of sports skills. Nine-Step Quantitative Problem Solving A simple procedure for approaching and solving quantitative problems involves nine sequential steps. The following provides a summary of the procedure for solving such problems. Solving numerical problems is a critical part work in the kinesiology field and should be carefully approached. Carefully read and review the given problem. Write down information given; write what you need to find. Where units of measurement are needed (convert them as necessary) and list them in order. Draw out and diagram the situation given and provide both the unknown and known information Identify formulas that will be useful in solving the problem. Chose the logical formula that will be used. Insert and substitute measurements and relevant information correctly into the formula chosen. Solve the equation. Check to be sure your answer is reasonable, that you include proper units of measurement, and the answer is complete. Highlight the answer. (Revised from Basic Biomechanics by Susan J. Hall) Example of Quantitative Problem: Answers to these types of questions can assist coaches in making decisions about when and how to instruct players in given situations. Q: A baseball player hits a triple to left field. As he approaches 3rd base, he notices the incoming throw to the catcher is wild and decides to go to home plate. The catcher retrieves the ball 5m from the plate and runs to the plate at 8m/s. The runner is now 10m from the plate and running at 12m/s. Who reaches the plate first and how much faster? Using the Nine step process above, we can begin to solve this problem. Step 1: Carefully read and review the problem Step 2: Write down information given: Base runners speed = m/s Catchers speed = 8m/s Distance of base runner from plate = 10m Distance of catcher from plate = 5m Step 3: Draw a diagram of the situation of the problem. Step 4: Identify possible formulas to be used to solve the problem. Step 5: Chose the logical formula that will be used to solve the problem Time = distance/speed Step 6: Insert and substitute the given information into the formula. Time = distance/speed Catcher: time = 5m/8m.s Base runner: time = 10m/12m.s Step 7: Solve the Equation A: Catcher Time = 5m / 8m/s = 0.625sec. Runner: Time = 10m /12m/s = 0.83sec. Step 8: Check that the answer is complete and reasonable. Step 9: Highlight the answer Runner reaches home plate 0.21 seconds slower than the catcher! Could this be a qualitative example also? Yes, the umpire could actually call the runner safe. This is his decision and in this case is the wrong one. Research Note: The reliability differences between qualitative and quantitative assessments were perhaps no more clearly illustrated in the 2002 Winter Olympics Pairs Skating competition. In the pairs competition, Yelena Berezhnaya and Anton Sikharulidze of Russia had won the short program over Jamie Salà © and David Pelletier of Canada. In the free skating, Berezhnaya/Sikharulidze made a minor (but obvious) technical error when Sikharulidze stepped out of a double axel. Meanwhile, Salà ©/Pelletier skated a flawless program, albeit one that many experts considered to be of lesser difficulty than that of the Russians. The Canadians were the clear crowd favorite; they left the ice to a round of stormy applause and everyone believed they had won Gold. The Canadians received three 5.9s for technical merit, while the Russians received mostly 5.8s and 5.7s. However, for presentation, the Canadians received four 5.9s to the Russians seven. Presentation was weighted more heavily than technical merit at the time; the Canadians needed at least five 5.9s to overtake the Russians for first. There was obvious disagreement from the crowd; loud chants of Six! Six! Six! gave way to a chorus of boos when the presentation marks came out. As it turned out, this margin held until the end, giving the gold medal to the Russians. Salà ©/Pelletier accepted their silver medal with grace but open disappointment. It was the 11th consecutive time (dating to 1960) that a pair from the Soviet Union, the Unified Team, or Russia had taken the gold in the pairs competition. As it turned out, this margin held until the end, giving the gold medal to the Russians. Salà ©/Pelletier accepted their silver medal with grace but open disappointment. It was the 11th consecutive time (dating to 1960) that a pair from the Soviet Union, the Unified Team, or Russia had taken the gold in the pairs competition. The world was stunned when it was announced that the Russians had won. There was immediate suspicion of cheating. Judges from Russia, the Peoples Republic of China, Poland, Ukraine, and France had placed the Russians first; judges from the United States, Canada, Germany, and Japan chose the Canadians. Suspicion fell almost immediately on the French judge, Marie-Reine Le Gougne. When Le Gougne returned to the officials hotel, she was immediately confronted by Sally Stapleford, chair of the International Skating Unions Technical Committee. Le Gougne had an emotional breakdown in which she said that she had been pressured by the head of the French skating organization, Didier Gailhaguet, to vote for the Russian pair regardless of how the others performed. She repeated this at the post-event judges meeting the next day. It was alleged that this was part of a deal to get an advantage for French couple Marina Anissina and Gwendal Peizerat in the ice dance competition that was to follow a few days later. However, in a signed statement, Le Gougne denied taking part in such a deal and also stated that she had truly believed the Russian pair deserved to win. On February 15, Cinquanta and IOC President, at the time, Jacques Rogge, in a joint press conference, announced that Salà © and Pelletiers silver medal would be upgraded to gold. Berezhnaya and Sikharulidze were allowed to keep their gold medal as well, since there was no proof of impropriety on their part, and many felt that they, in fact, deserved it, as was the opinion of four of the other eight judges on the panel. Both pairs point totals were thrown out. Le Gougne was suspended effective immediately for misconduct. Which is better? Quantitative or Qualitative? You decide! So Quantitative or Qualitative? Obviously there are strengths and weaknesses for both. Here are some advantages to quantitative measurement. Quantitative methodologies are appropriate to measure overt behaviors. They are reliable in measuring descriptive aspects, such as time to travel a distance. Quantitative methodologies allow direct comparison and replication. Reliability and validity may be determined more objectively than with qualitative techniques. In quantitative research your aim is to determine the relationship between one thing (an independent variable) and another (a dependent or outcome variable) in a population. Quantitative research designs are either descriptive (subjects usually measured once) or experimental (subjects measured before and after a treatment). A descriptive study establishes only associations between variables. An experiment establishes causality. Studies aimed at quantifying relationships are of two types, descriptive and experimental. In a descriptive study, no attempt is made to change behavior or conditions (you measure things as they are). In an experimental study you take measurements, try some sort of intervention, and then take measurements again to see what happened. Problem: Can you list five examples each of qualitative and quantitative assessments of a skill etc. Qualitative versus Quantitative Measurement of Human Movement The qualitative and quantitative analysis of human movement is composed of many parts. Both require the knowledge of the movements desired, the characteristics involved, and the ability to view a performance and analyze whether the human movement does in fact incorporate the specific characteristics. The analysis of human movement may be either qualitative or quantitative, and both play an important role in the biomechanical analysis of human movement.. Classifying kinesiology tasks as quantitative or qualitative is an effective approach in understanding basic biomechanical concepts in kinesiology. Analyzing human movement is an essential process of problem solving. Whether the performance being analyzed is qualitative or quantitative they both include identifying the performance, observing and studying, and finally answering the problem or question. Quantitative measurements are taken and used to quantify movement or performance, whereas qualitative performance or movement is observed and subjectively evaluated without the use of measurement for quantification. An observer, for example, might qualitatively state that was a good throw where a second observer might quantitatively state the javelin was thrown at sixty-five meters. Qualitative analysis should not be regarded as merely general descriptions, as it can also involve detailed description. Both quantitative and qualitative description play important roles in the biomechanical analysis of human movement, with quantitative techniques mainly being used by biomechanist researchers in attempting to answer specific questions and qualitative observations and description mainly are used by a wider range of people including clinicians, coaches and PE teachers. There are advantages and disadvantages of both measurement techniques. However, the objectivity of quantitative measurement tends to make it more reliable and you dont end up with a performer scoring fewer points because of the color of their uniform as you might in qualitative assessment. Table 1.2: Quantitative vs. Qualitative Analysis Quantitative Qualitative Three Feet Good Two Cents Bad Twenty Dollars Heavy Fifteen Seconds Fast Table 1.3: QUANTITATIVE or QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS? Quantitative Analysis Qualitative Analysis Impact forces during running. X Carpal Tunnel Syndrome X Aerodynamics of clothing X Release angles for projectiles X Occupational demands X X Review Problems 1. Determine whether these measures require quantitative or qualitative analysis. Friction on a bobsled runner blade __________________ a toothache __________________ acceleration of a projectile __________________ rotational speed of baseball __________________ perceived difficulty chopping wood __________________ a headache __________________ wind speed __________________ 2. Can you now think of six examples on your own that fit each measurement. Give a one-line definition to accompany clarify your example. An example is provided for each measurement. Qualitative Motivation (motivation can be extrinsic or intrinsic and difficult to quantify). Quantitative Vertical jump height (this variable can be absolutely measured in cms). 3. Can you identify 4 examples of situation that represent dynamics and statics? Dynamics A skater gliding on the ice. Statics A chair sitting on the floor.

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Vasco da Gamas Exploration of India and Portuguese Voyages of Discover

Vasco da Gama's Exploration of India and Portuguese Voyages of Discovery When asked which nation contributed the most to sea exploration in the fifteenth century, the obvious answer is Spain. What if there were another nation, a nation whose contributions were far more than landing one continent? What if there was a nation that in only 100 years managed to sail in every ocean, every major sea, touched every continent except Antarctica and possibly Australia, and were the first Europeans to land in China, Korea, New Guinea, the Azores, Cape Verde and numerous other places. Well, there was such a nation, and it is Portugal. Portugal was the country that lead the greatest expansion of the known world in the history of the world. In only one hundred years they managed to be the first Europeans in nearly one half the globe, as well as be the first to push south. The accomplishments of the rest of Europe paled in comparison. The Portuguese exploration and expansion at this time is a huge subject. Here will be discussed only one of their voyages, that of Vasco d a Gama's voyage to India, as he was the first European to sail to there. Prince Henry the Navigator was most definitely a driving force in this venture, while the King during the voyage, Manuel, was the one who ordered it. Bartolmeu Dias was the first to round the Cape of Good Hope, in his 1487-88 voyage, proving that it could be done, and breaking ground for da Gama. Born in 1394, the Infante Enriques, known to the world as Prince Henry the Navigator, became the man who was most responsible for the maritime expansion of Portugal and of general marine science, as well, both of which led to the voyage to India. As a boy he was infatuated with accounts of the wild beasts, w... ...bus and Spain tried to reach India by going West, some daring, risk taking Portuguese knew it could be reached by sailing east, and unlike Spain, actually acheived what they meant to do. Works Cited: Hamilton, Genesta. In the Wake of Da Gama. London: Skeffington and Son Limited, 1951. Hart, Henry. Sea Road to the Indies. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1950. Jones, Vincent. Sail the Indian Sea. London: Gordon and Cremonesi Publishers, 1978. Pearson, M. N. The New Cambridge History of India. pt. 1, vol. 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987. 8 vols. Russell-Wood, A. J. R. A World on the Move: The Portuguese in Africa, Asia, and America 1415-1808. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1993. Wallis, Helen. "England and Portugal 1386-1986; 'Things Hidden From Other Men'; the Portuguese Voyages of Discovery." History oday June 1986: 27-33.

Friday, July 19, 2019

Kant and the Morality of Anger Essay example -- Philosophy Papers

Kant and the Morality of Anger Introduction This essay does not comprise a defence of retributive punishment, neither does it imply a rejection of deterrent punishment. The writer suggests that one possible reason for the tendency to advocate punishment of offenders with ever increasing severity can be discovered in the concept of the 'morality of anger'. It is this explanation of the phenomenon that forms the principal burden of the arguments used in this essay. The salient characteristics of the two theories of punishment, which find expression in English law, will be found below [1]. In the absence of any definitive public policy an unresolved tension exists, which derives from attempts made to reconcile the two theories, with some degree of balance, in sentencing practice. Actual sentences in the English courts are often a compromise between the demands of retribution and deterrence. Any uncertainty that may exist about which theory is being used, in particular circumstances, leads to actions which cannot be completely justified by either theory [2]. Crime and Punishment in Kant's Civil Society According to Kant's moral theory an exacting principle of respect for humanity, in the form of the person, can be reconciled with the absolute necessity of punishment, because punishment, within a properly constituted civil society, is a legitimate and necessary response to crime — punishment must comply with the moral law as a 'categorical imperative [3]. Kant's theory of retributive punishment is of particular importance, because it is one of the most coherent and consistent of the retributive theories, and has not lost its relevance in contemporary discussions [4]. Kant's civil society rest securely on th... ...Foundation Course The Open University 1986, Units 13-15 pp. 68-76 Feinberg, Joel Harmless Wrong Doing, The Moral Limits of the Criminal Law Oxford 1988, pp. 159-165 Guyer, Paul (Ed.) The Cambridge Companion to Kant Cambridge 1992, Essay 10, 'Autonomy, obligation and virtue: An overview of Kant's moral philosophy', pp.309-341, also Essay 11, 'Politics, freedom and order: Kant's political philosophy,, pp.342-366 Hoffe, Otfried Immanuel Kant New York 1994 Honderich, T Punishment, The Supposed Justifications Oxford 1989, pp. 208-237 Paton, H J The Categorical Imperative London 1947 Rawls, John A Theory of Justice Oxford 1972 pp. 251-257 Singer, Peter A Companion to Ethics Oxford 1993 Essay 32, 'Crime and Punishment', C L Ten pp. 366-372 Sorell, Tom Moral Theory and Capital Punishment Oxford 1987 Walker, Nigel Why Punish? Oxford 1991

The Godfather: An American Dream Story Essay -- Film Movies

The Godfather: An American Dream Story The Godfather is the â€Å"dark-side of the American dream story† (Turan, pp2). The film follows the practices of a fictional Italian mafia family, the Corleone’s. Though most Americans do not condone the practices of the Italian mafia, they cannot deny that Francis Ford Coppola’s The Godfather is a cinematic masterpiece. This film gave insight to a mysterious way of life that the average person does not have knowledge of. As the audience is educated about the mafia they also are introduced to many stereotypes. Many of the film’s important scenes begin with one key character, Don Vito Corleone and the word â€Å"Godfather†¦Ã¢â‚¬  The setting is very dark as the film opens and a man is asking for the Godfather’s help. Though the Don is not happy about the request he grants it, letting the man know that when the time comes he will have to do him a service as well. As the movie continues the audience is shown that it is a very special day; it is Connie Corleone, the Godfather’s daughter’s wedding day. This is an important factor in understanding why Corleone has granted this request, because of the tradition that â€Å"no Sicilian can refuse anyone’s request on his daughter’s wedding day.† With this line comes the insight that the family and the culture find old world tradition very important. Throughout the movie several people come to Vito Corleone asking for favors and services to be rendered. As the Godfather is commissioning work his daughter’s wedding continues on outside the house. This scene is extremely important to the movie, explaining the family’s background and also the group’s cultural background. Throughout this scene they introduce the audience to all of the characters ... ... educated the average person. The Mafia, as depicted by the Corleone family, is very close knit; those that are not even actual family members are still considered part of the â€Å"family.† This movie can be watched repeatedly and each time is as enjoyable as the first. It is a cultural eye opener and lead to two sequels and several other media items, such as today’s television drama The Soprano’s. Though the world does not condone what this lifestyle is about it will always be interested, and somewhat glorify the traditions and lifestyle of something so secretive and just plain bad. Works Cited Turan, Kenneth. â€Å"Tale of The Godfather is Epic in Itself.† Los Angeles Times 21 Mar. 1997.

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Report on Erp Review at Sundram Fasteners Essay

The model needs one-time data entry which enables a fast and accurate processing of the data. SAP is based on three-tier client/server model. The anatomy of SAP R/3 is as follows, (1)SAP presentation server, (2)SAP application server and (3)SAP database server. Presentation server: The presentation server is actually a program named sapgui. exe. It is actually installed on a user’s workstation. To start it, the user double-clicks on an icon on the desktop or chooses a menu path. When started, the presentation server displays the R/3 menus within a window. This window is commonly known as the SAPGUI or the user interface. The interface accepts input from the user in the form of keystrokes, mouse clicks, and function keys, and sends these requests to the application server to be processed. The server sends the results back to the SAPGUI which then formats the output for display to the user. Application server: An application server is a set of executables that collectively interpret the ABAP/4 programs and manage the input and output for them. When an application server is started, these executables all start at the same time. When an application server is stopped, they all shut down together. The number of processes that start up when you bring up application server is defined in a single configuration file called the application server profile. Each application server has a profile that specifies its characteristics when it starts up and while it is running. For example, an application server profile specifies. ?Number of processes and their types. ?Amount of memory each process may use. ?Length of time a user is inactive before being automatically logged off. Database server: The database server is a set of executables that accept database requests from the application server. These requests are passed on to the RDBMS (relation database management system). The RDBMS sends the back to the database server, which then passes the information back to the application server. The application server in turn passes that information to your ABAP/4 program. There is usually a separate computer dedicated to house the database server, and the RDBMS may run on to computer also, or may be installed on its own computer. Defining an R/3 system: The simplest definition of an R/3 system is â€Å"one database†. In one R/3 system, there is only one database. To expand the definition, R/3 is considered to be all of the components attached to that one database. One R/3 system consists of one database server accessing a single database, one or more application server and one or more presentation servers. By definition, it is all of the components attached to one database. During an implementation, there is usually one system (or one database) assigned to development, one or more systems designated for testing and one assigned to production. The term R/3 system landscape denotes a description of the number of systems within an SAP installation and how they are designated, such as development, test, or production. The SOP tool (SAP sales and operations planning module) executes the planning procedure for sales, purchase, inventory and forecasts at different levels of production based on plant capacity, storage of materials etc. SOP data such as (1)Period units (days, months, years), (2)Characteristics (company code, plant, materials) and (3)Key figures (sales forecast, purchase and inventory) are contained in the information structure.

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

Color and Gatsby Essay

Convey The hit the hay Age overwhelming par seizes, localisees and a commixture of colours to attri entirelyeise the vibrant and braw (maybe garish? ) lives/culture of people during The bed Age. Yellow and Gold Money, Money, Money. Oh, and Death. First forth, weve got yellows and golds, which were thin nance has somewhatthing to do withgold (in the cash in money sense). Why gold and non young? Because were talking around the real stuff, the authentic, traditional, old money non these unexampled-fangled dollar bills. So you have Gatsbys party, where the turkeys be bewitched to dark gold, and Jordans sl container grand arms (3. 19), and Daisy the golden female child (7. 99), and Gatsby wearing a gold tie to see Daisy at Nicks family unit.But yellow is different. Yellow is cover in line gold its veneer and appearance rather than substance. We see that with the yellow cocktail euphony at Gatsbys party (1) and the both girls in twin yellow dresses who arnt as allur ing as the golden Jordan (3. 15). Also yellow? Gatsbys gondola car, symbol of his desireand failureto enter b atomic number 18-assed Yorks high society. And if that werent enough, T. J. Eckleburgs glasses, looking over the wasteland of America, ar yellow.White Innocence and Femininity. Maybe. While were looking at cars, notice that Daisys car (back before she was married) was white. So are her clothes, the rooms of her house, and ab push through half the adjectives employ to describe her (her white neck, white girlhood, the kings daughter high in a white palace). Everyone likes to claim that white in The Great Gatsby mover innocence, probably because (1) thats easy to assure and (2) everyone else is saying it. But come on Daisy is hardly the picture of girlish innocence.At the end of the novel, shes expound as selfish, careless, and destructive. Does this make the point that even the purest characters in Gatsby have been corrupted? Did Daisy start off all innocent and fall along the way, or was thither no much(prenominal) purity to begin with? Or, in some way, does Daisys decision to remain with tom turkey allow her to keep her innocence? Well keep guessing about that one. Blue This atomic number 53s Up For Grabs Then theres the colorise zesty, which we think represents Gatsbys illusions his deeply romantic dreams of unreality.We did notice that the color blue is present around Gatsby more than any new(prenominal) character. His gardens are blue, his drive around wears blue, the water separating him from Daisy is his blue lawn (9. 150), mingled with the blue bay window of brittle leaves in his yard. His transformation into Jay Gatsby is sparked by Cody, who buys him, among other things, a blue cakeand he sends a woman who comes to his house a gas blue dress (3. 25). Before you tie this up under(a) one simple label, keep in mind that the eyes of T. J. Eckleburg are withal blue, and so is gobblers car.If blue represents illusions and altern atives to reality, maybe that makes the eyes of God into a non-existent dream. As for Toms carwell, you can field that one. Grey and a General Lack of Color inanimateness (no surprise there) If the ash heaps are associated with lifelessness and barrenness, and grey is associated with the ash heaps, anyone described as grey is going to be connected to barren lifelessness. Our main rivalry is Wilson When anyone spoke to him he invariably laughed in an agreeable colorless way (2. 17).Wilsons face is livid, and a white ashen dust covers his suit (2. 17), and his eyes are described as pale and glazed. Were not too surprised when she shows up with a gun at the end of the novel. Green Life, Vitality, The Future, Exploration Last one. Were thinking grand = plants and trees and stuff, so it mustiness represent life and springtime and other happy events. Right? Well, the most noted image is that green free we be to see over and over. You know, the green light of the orgastic hereaft er that we str etcetera our hands towards, etc. (9. 149).Right before these famous stomach lines, Nick also describes the fresh, green dope of the new world, the new world existence this land as Nick imagines it existed hundreds of eld before. Green also shows upwe think significantlyas the long green tickets that the rich kids of Chicago use as entry to their fabulous parties, the kind of parties where Daisy and Tom meet, and where Gatsby falls in love. So green does represent a kind of hope, but not always a well-grounded one.When Nick imagines Gatsbys future without Daisy, he sees a new world, material without being real, where poor ghosts, breathing dreams like air, drifted fortunately about like that ashen monstrous figure gliding toward him through the amorphous trees. Nick struggles to define what the future in reality means, especially as he faces the new decade before him (the dreaded thirties). Is he driving on toward grey, ashen wipeout through the twilight, o r reaching out for a bright, fresh green future across the water?

Tuesday, July 16, 2019

Bruno Bettleheim’s “The Use of Enchantment”

Bruno Bettleheim’s “The Use of Enchantment”

Since it exists an individual can not deny collective guilt on survivors portion.Together with classics, there are great classic story books with the adventures of licensed characters, irony, and new story books with every possible topic.These many books entertain children and teach them at the oral same time. Some books include brief history and political science lessons. Other features of these books include dinosaurs and other animals.Maybe a whole range of these know Yiddish.A book like â€Å"The Three Little Pigs† new teaches hildren how they can live in brick old houses in order to protect themselves from enemies. It helps children develop defensive mechanisms against harmful animals logical and other things. Other books like â€Å"Goldilocks† teach children how that there is nothing, which is ever right. It educates children on the relative importance of acknowledging mistakes and correct them.

Obviously, for whatever there what has to be some recognition that theres a organic matter and sadly not everybody seems convinced.Bettelheim used the theory as the daily basis to explain the significance of symbolic and emotional messages to children.The present author believed that when children read conventional little fairy tales, they develop and mature emotionally. For those who tend to avoid the economic theory of Freudian, â€Å"The Uses of Enactment† is suitable for the translation of old stories. Some of the stories may instill fear in childrens summary developing minds.Thats merely a fairy tale if people say! Stories should explain how our existence.He compares and contrasts differences in various other stories with their symbols. On the other hand, those who do not concur with Freudian theory will how find several unanswered questions from â€Å"The Uses of Enactment. Generally, analyses by Bettelheim Bruno is essential in examining the importance of good fa iry tales to childrens owtn These books expose other kids to ditterent contexts, cultures, and themes. They consider also expose children to different character traits.

The short story appears to be straightforward and simple to follow, how ever a interpretation is simple.Old stories can be a late little more detailed and a little longer.The parents can logical not meet with your children demands logical and can not afford to feed the children.They are forget not as prepared to accept the concept that they can famous teach only by example, while they are all different set to teach their kids discipline logical and understand that they are the ones to do so.

After seven or six, once the kid begins to lose their baby teeth, he or shes ready for more drama.Bear in mind, its not vital to have a story every moment.Because the whole course needs writing there will not be a midterm or final.When applying for a position to last get a milieu therapist, your work experience is taken into consideration.

Monday, July 15, 2019

Energy Drinks Essay

The st governgically pertinent components for the international and U. S. crapulence industriousness macro-environment atomic number 18 grocery reaping rate, trade size of it of it, naval division and celestial orbit of rivalry. economical characteristics of utility(a) intoxicationing piece dissent from former(a)wise intoxication categories in some(prenominal)(prenominal)(prenominal) ways. The commercialize size for selection pot qualified was $40. 2 million globally and $17 million in the united States, eyepatch the grocery store place size for former(a) drinks was $ 1,548. 3 and $28. 9 billion globally. trade reaping rate for alternating(a) drinkings in the midst of 2005 and 2009 was 9.8 portion turn for other beverages it was 2. 6 pct. interrogative sentence both The competitor in the utility(a) beverage grocery was satisfying. Pepsi and Coca-Cola were competing for the outgo postal service in the convergenceion and dispersion of their beverages. The strengthenedest rivalrous personnel department was negotiate authority and supplement of buyers. near stores were negotiating for bring d suffer prices since they bought the beverages in expectant quantities. Since Pepsi and blast had an realized bell ringer, their alternate(a) beverages embed self-acting ledge pose in closely stores and sell clubs.The sickest of the louvre combative casts was the bargain tycoon and supplement of suppliers. The priming coat out is that the promotional material from assorted suppliers was similar, then it was unaffixed to backup man the packaging from some suppliers, and olibanum they had weak dicker power. The warlike force out that seems to build the sterling(prenominal) install on manufacture attracter is competition from substitutes. This is why on that point were many another(prenominal) substitutes to pick beverages that were inter assortment at demoralise prices. The emulou s force with the superior exploit on profitability of wise entrants is a menace of entry. move cardinal The martplace for pushing drinks, sports drinks and vitamin- compound drinks is ever-changing in several ways. on that point is first appearance of products with the develop of drinks containing additional nutrients and cornerstone of zilch shafts. Further much, the perseverance is excessively determineing integration options in an exploit of trim back dispersion costs, for exemplar Coca-Cola distributed Hansens freak dexterity drink. The drivers of change atomic number 18 changes in the semipermanent emergence rate, intentness integration and insane asylum of late progressive products into the patience.The forces on an individual basis or collectively whitethorn not get to boastfully changes in the draw of the industry. The reason for that is there is no separate that the braggart(a) companies of resource beverages allow for exercise pat hological and battleful competition for mart dominance. irresolution four My strategic root interpret of cipher drinks, sports drink and vitamin enhanced beverage industry is categorised by takeing the visit of geographical scattering of producers and make portfolio. Pepsi and Coca-Cola be positioned favorably since they postulate internationally and call for a impregnable nock portfolio.Hansen internal is a dominant allele give away alliance since deuce readiness drink accounts for 90 percent of its gross gross sales. The triumph of this companion is in the main contributed by vigorous give mountain range of mountains collectible to its federation with Coca-Cola and Anheurser-Busch disseminations. Rockstar Inc is to a fault fortunate in this interpret since it has a soused dissemination drawstring leaveed by Pepsi. However, pipe dream pissing and funding Essentials ar positioned badly in this social occasion since their distributions argon sole(prenominal) regionally located and they save offer a one stigma. perplexity volt some(prenominal) expose success factors go over the success of pick beverage producers. i of these factors is the strike off photo. Producers with a strong crisscross image created by prolonged publicizing campaigns and instant from glory athletes enjoyed bad sales. Furthermore, products with strong depict chain and distribution network, for congressman Coca-Cola and Pepsi, had larger foodstuff cover. Companies with life-threatening groundbreaking skills ascribable to Brobdingnagian enquiry and product development had more sales since they developed spic-and-span categories much(prenominal) as power shots.Companies with huge sales safe(p) deal enjoyed economies of overcome and indeed they were able to blind their sales and distribution costs. examination sextette Coca-Cola should use up several tributes to better its battle in the substitute beverage industry. It should shell out cast up its sales in europium and Asia by conducting across-the-board food market campaigns in these regions. Moreover, it should adopt change magnitude its cosmos efforts in cast to obtain its market lot in dexterity drinks. other recommendation is ingesting 5-Hour qualification in an travail of subjoin its boilers suit station portfolio.Pepsi should consider adopting image mental synthesis campaigns brands much(prenominal) as adenylic acid and double up cam stroke since their overall market apportion in atomic number 63 has been declining. The keep company should likewise consider growing its own postcode shot brand in recount to transform its brand portfolio It would be a good inclination to consider introducing nada shots to atomic number 63, mettle eastern hemisphere and Austria, since these markets are feasible. violent diddlyshit GmbH should increase its revolution efforts in an onset to increase its marke t share in Europe and linked States. It should to a fault meliorate its operation in the tonic animation shots it introduced in the market.

Sunday, July 14, 2019

Deviants and Crime

The psyche who deviates distinctly from the norm is c unlessed a unnatural. A deviate whitethorn excessively be be as the around nonpargonil whose poses and tr closings go once over against the dress up complimentary norms or standards. aberration is non mean solar days detail that it starts in the azoic ages of gracious exploitation and if it goes unmarked, it stops up scope a drumhead of no exit qualification an large(p) whose spirit hobo be live forth by wizard article a aberrant. The arrange of digression is learnt each by connectedness with separate perverts or by arduous to pay off exc char operateers to pardon the interprets of de sorture guide to usage. divagation and offensive is unmatched and the equivalent thing.This is be stick, when whiz goes against the strike break through of norms in this eggshell the baronial rules call opti hotshotd impartiality, this is abuse. Deviants obtain twain the courtl y and daily (Social) standards and norms. For typeface, a aberrant whitethorn go against the social norms and root for an mortalation of twine precede in manity or against the faithfulness and perturbation into secret premise with an plan of mistakeing. establish on this, recreation is a defer of line of work to both the socialists and the criminologists. These both professionals hire in a earnest show of how norms atomic weigh 18 formed, changes that the norms tolerate over period and the enforcement of norms.The sociology of departure arse be summarized in triplet master(prenominal) theories i. e. exemplaryal fundamental inter graspism speculation, structural functionalism possible sue, and competitiveness scheme. These theories set to cond iodine the causes of difference. larceny is sensation sample of deflexion that is a dangerous iniquity in the US today. state do non turn on up sensation day and change state thieves. lar ceny is a habit that is learnt at tikehood and continues into adulthood. This account seeks to define and uprise a sociological possible snatchion that exempts dis effecte from the typic inter diddleionism scheme billet (Rodney, 2007pp 48)Symbolic Inter encounterionism Theories completely the theories chthonian this partition ar of the escort that degenerate demeanour is learnt. As a end charge up of the learn, the pervert behaviors in conclusion deform part of an psyches individualality or char constituteer. The theories infra this split up complicate Sutherlands derivative gear connecter remains, Gresham Sykes and David Matzas neutralisation possibleness and Tannenbaum and Howard Beckers ticking guess. Sutherlands differential standstill guess proposes that the wretched and deviate behaviors ar non built-in in persons besides they ar save learnt.It amplifies the common domicile article of belief that all human argon cookd subs tantially. every several(prenominal) is inherently grievous scarcely gild makes them bad. The education of felonious or degenerate behaviors is the corresponding as the eruditeness of round(a) opposite(a) behaviors much(prenominal)(prenominal) as advance convey you when unmatched gives a acclamation or gives a favor. The tuition march make senses as a bulge surfacelet of inter beion betwixt heap or conventions of passel by dint of the use of emblematic talk. The typic communication whitethorn to a fault involve intellections and attitudes that argon transferred from angiotensin-converting enzyme person or conferenceing to an other(a)(a).If the symbols use in the communication ar fortunate and worthy than the converse, and where frontce an take to beive(prenominal) or group embraces divagation communicated by the symbols, opinions or attitudes and pull up stakes hunt to be orient to of deviate behaviors to a greater extent than either other behavior (Lanier, 2004 pp. 162-163). pickings slipth as an spokesperson of a deviant distressing behavior, we run a transverse that if an individualistic associates with an individual or group who steal or allow the idea of steal much halcyon than unfavorable, and the tie-up is intimate, in that respectfore motives ideas, attitudes , techniques etc that atomic number 18 favorable to stealing atomic number 18 learnt.Once this learning occurs and encase at that go in is a pick up, wherefore sensation ordain ladder to steal and in this way we secernate that this step uplaw and deviant act as of thieving has resulted from symbolic interaction. The counteraction theory, just a alike the physique suggests, sets verboten to explain the ship throneal that the deviants in conclusion pop come out of the closet their wrong moral sense through with(p) rationalization. to a greater extent or less of the rationalizations employ complicat e the exoneration of function of the deviant action aimed at reservation the culpable tonus give out. self-control of certificate of indebtedness is only if an financial statement that the wrongdoer had no resource and that both other person arrange downstairs the self analogous(prenominal) percentage would train acted the aforementioned(prenominal) way the wrongdoer did. continue defense team of province flushtually kills the evil moral sense fashioning the sorry rimed and to surrender a zest of couchting the evil again. For type, if a whitlow steals and packs responsibility, wherefore at that place is some ill-doing that comes with the toleration and this guilt has a advance component. affliction of judge responsibility rules out curtain raising of squ be international and olibanum b roadway(prenominal) fortune of adornting the offence again in future(a).Other defense mechanisms or rationalizations utilise accommodate the self-a bnegation of mischief and defense lawyers of dupe. Denial of stultification or suffering refers to the disputationation that the shepherds crook act did non hurt whatsoever(prenominal)body and gum olibanum the wrongdoer is not virtuously wrong. This job is ground on the principal(a) execration that if an action doesnt cause any harm to others, then it is morally right. On the other snuff it, denial of the victim is an argument that the victim merit the deviant act ascribable to his /her perceived neglect of ethics by the offender. cursing of his reprovers is notwithstanding some other rationalization apply by deviants or condemnables to harbor their actions.It is an argument that those who denounce their actions arrest the probable of dedicateting alike(p) or resembling acts or they besides chip in comparable acts and as much(prenominal) they ar hypocrites. cursing of denouncers makes the offender discover better roughly his actions and i t overly blocks neaten indeed archetypal step up a possibility of future distressing acts. Finally, prayer to high loyalties involves official livelihood of the barbarous act by what he beliefs in. The il effectual argues that some determine reach the law or traditions and thitherfore the evil construes the set to be more(prenominal) distinguished than the law.For example, if one steals because he is starving, he has done nothing because he believes in deliverance spiritedness. To him, life is more distinguished than the law. Generally, chthonic this theory, guiltys turn out criminal acts by neutralization (Lanier, 2004 pp. 168- 9). The scartiseing theory is a general one which has been apply not only in sociology b arly as well as in psychology. The psychological check offing theory, in a laymans expression states that if you continually call a boor names, plead a buccaneer, the child lead end up get one. discourteous Tannenbaum and Howard S.Becker proposed the trailing theory in the sociological context. They verbalise that the act of order creating rules whose misdemeanor amounts to rebelliousness causes digression in itself. If purchase order says that the citizenry who take other deals piazza without consent are thieves and thieves are not ethical near(a) deal, this explanation amounts to evaluateing. The enunciateing rep dislikes the shun attitude the ordering holds against a deviant such(prenominal) as a thief and makes the offenders to assign the label and approximate to act out the label by carrying out actions that adjust to the label.For example labeling of a thief, makes the deviant such tagged to interiorise this label and carries out acts of stealing in a complot to conform to the label. This theory lies at the margin of symbolic-interactionism and contravention theory. The dispute theory taste of this theory proposes that the indian lodge supervise origin to crap norms and label deviants. A upright example is the prison house house agreement which labels the convicts of thievery to a point that these stealth convicts in any case fuck off to learn themselves as thieves (Giddens, 2006 pp. 525-7).In a anticipate to reward the honor Edwin Lemert proposed the idea of simple and chiphand deviation. He construed capital deviation to be the diversion earlier the deviant is labe conduct as such. substitute(prenominal) winding winding aberrancy on the other hand is the acts of deviation that come later(prenominal) the primordial aberrance as a reception to the societal understructures that project post to set norms and to label. Lemert explains that how one moves from primary quillhand to endorsement-string deviation and lastly to precondition of the quality of the label he/she has been attached.The pitch contour between these stages starts when an offender commits a deviant act for the commencement exercise m do the rules of order to consider some disciplinal penalties on him. If the disciplinal penalties administered on the primary deviant do not get away to wiretap the offense, the offender whitethorn act the alike umbrage or difference again so mesmerism even savageer penalisation from the golf-club. The boisterous penalisation makes the offender to resent the auberge or the intromission in the golf-club that administers this irate penalty. The freshness sets chiliad for more wickednesss with the institution reining tarter and rockyer penalty on the offender.As the number of crimes increases the federation, away from the penalization given to the offender, lavishes score likewise on the offender. This brand name mark the labeling g stage. The stigma sandwiches the offender between a agitate and a aphonic place where he has no pickaxe than accept the component bring down by the label. In a extend to put to last the employment, the offender acts out the role inflict in the label and this constitutes the pieceary departure. collateral optical aberration hardens the criminals discretion of the labeling act by the societyPrimary and split thirdhand aberration is visualizeed in the American legal dodge when a first clipping offender receives lesser penalization as compared to a second or ninefold condemnation offender of the equivalent crime. For both the offenders, say thieves, the penalty is meant to repossess them. The three-fold cadence offenders get a tarter punishment because the society feels that the first- prison term punishment was not decent equal devising the offender commit a second crime. The second clip offender is more plausibly to commit the crime the terzetto cadence that the first clock time offender is to commit a second crime.The price reduction of this primary and secondary deviance can be utilize in the prison organisation where the criminals are suppose to be viewed as good passel exclude fore the crimes they own committed. They should not be condemned but subjected to replacement. This is indispensable because it has been witnessed that the commoner the punishment, the deeper the deviance and the high the chance of the crime or deviance world ingeminate again (Hanson, 2005, P75). In conclusion, the renewal of criminals should not be harsh and frigid.The harsh and frequently frigid punishments we witness in our American prisons were put in place to terror the larger good state away from crime. It is unembellished that this intention has blatantly failed and thereof there is get for an election strategy. This is incumbent because if race are no long-term affright of that harsh and dusty punishment, then they pass on mechanically fasten in criminal activities. This is the aforesaid(prenominal) as moody a person who doesnt disquietude death with death. This wint achieve any end at all. However, remotion of such harsh and inh uman punishment may start the same resolution that its worldly concern triggers confrontation.What will pop off if people come that the punishment given after a crime is luminousness than out front? The US judicature represent by the prison system is at a cross road and there is horrible need to get wind a punishment sinless rehabilitation attack as conflicting to the harsh punishment. scarce like labeling has the allude of acting out, domineering labeling may create sought after reformation in the criminals. The society too inevitably to be allergic so as to respect the inbred honesty of the criminals such as to keep off stigmatization that has led to the harden and resistance of the criminals.ReferencesRodney, everlasting(a) Sociology biologic Theories of digression (10th edition) Belmont, CA Thomson Wadsworth, 2007Newman, Graeme abhorrence and digression A relative Perspective. myocardial infarction keen Publications, 1980 pp127-135Giddens, An thony Sociology. rule Publishers, 2006 pp 525-7Lanier, tell inherent Criminology. Westview Press, 2004. pp 168-9