Thursday, August 1, 2019

Determinants of Intelligence Test Scores

Determinants of intelligence test scores Heredity Is the passing of traits to offspring (from its parent or ancestors)? This is the process by which an offspring  cell  or  organism  acquires or becomes predisposed to the characteristics of its parent cell or organism. Through heredity, variations exhibited by individuals can accumulate and cause some  species  to evolve. The study of heredity in  biology  is called  genetics, which includes the field of  epigenetic. Social Refers to a characteristic of living  organisms  as applied to populations of humans and other animals.It always refers to the interaction of organisms with other organisms and to their collective co-existence, irrespective of whether they are aware of it or not, and irrespective of whether the interaction is  voluntary  or  involuntary. Education In its broadest, general sense is the means through which the aims and habits of a group of people sustain from one generation to the next. [1]  Generally, it occurs through any experience  that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, or acts.In its narrow, technical sense, education is the formal process by which society deliberately transmits its accumulated  knowledge,  skills,  customs  and  values  from one generation to another, e. g. instruction in schools. A right to education has been created and recognized by some jurisdictions: Since 1952, Article 2 of the first Protocol to the  European Convention on Human Rights  obliges all signatory parties to guarantee the right to education. At the global level, the  Nations’ International  of 1966 guarantees this right under its Article 13.Maturation Maturation is the process of learning to cope and react in an emotionally appropriate way. It does not necessarily happen along with aging or physical growth, but is a part of growth and development. A situation a person must deal with at a young age prepares them for the next a nd so on into adulthood. Maturation does not stop when physical growth ends – it continues through adulthood. An adult who loses a parent, for instance, learns to cope with a new emotional situation that will affect the way he or she deals with ituations that follow. physical factor A factor in the  a biotic  environment that influences the growth and development of organisms or biological  communities. Personality psychology Is a branch of  psychology  that studies personality and individual differences. Its areas of focus include: * Constructing a coherent picture of the  individual  and his or her major psychological processes * Investigating individual differences—how people are unique * Investigating  human nature—how people are alike Personality† can be defined as a dynamic and organized set of characteristics possessed by a person that uniquely influences his or her  cognitions,  emotions,  motivations, andbehaviors  in vario us situations. The word â€Å"personality† originates from the  Latin  persona, which means  mask. Significantly, in the  theatre  of the ancient Latin-speaking world, themask  was not used as a plot device to  disguise  the identity of a character, but rather was a convention employed to represent or  typify  that character.Personality may also refer to the patterns of thoughts, feelings and behaviors consistently exhibited by an individual over time that strongly influence our expectations, self-perceptions, values and attitudes, and predicts our reactions to people, problems and stress. In a phrase, personality is not just who we are,  Gordon Allport  (1937) described two major ways to study personality: the nomothetic and the  idiographic. Nomothetic psychology  seeks general laws that can be applied to many different people, such as the principle of  self-actualization, or the trait ofextraversion.Idiographic psychology  is an attempt to u nderstand the unique aspects of a particular individual. The study of personality has a broad and varied history in psychology, with an abundance of theoretical traditions. The major theories include dispositional (trait) perspective, psychodynamic, humanistic, biological, behaviorist and social learning perspective. There is no consensus on the definition of â€Å"personality† in psychology. Most researchers and psychologists do not explicitly identify themselves with a certain perspective and often take an eclectic approach.Some research is empirically driven such as dimensional models based on  multivariate statistics  such as  factor analysis, whereas other research emphasizes theory development such as  psychodynamics. There is also a substantial emphasis on the applied field of personality testing. In psychological education and training, the study of the nature of personality and its psychological development is usually reviewed as a prerequisite to courses in abnormal or clinical psychology. Abilities associatedSpatial visualization ability  or  Visual-spatial ability  is the ability to mentally manipulate  2-dimensional  and  3-dimensional  figures. It is typically measured with simple  cognitive tests  and is predictive of user performance with some kinds of  user interfaces. Verbal fluency tests  are a kind of  psychological test  in which participants have to say as many words as possible from a category in a given time (usually 60 seconds). This category can be  semantic, such as animals or fruits, or  phonemic, such as words that begin with letter  p. 1]  The semantic fluency test is sometimes described as the category fluency test or simply as ‘freelisting'. The COWAT (Controlled oral word association test) is the most employed phonetic variant. [2][3]  Although the most common performance measure is the total number of words, other analyses such as number of repetitions, number and length of clusters of words from the same semantic or phonetic subcategory, or number of switches to other categories can be carried out. 4][5] Verbal comprehension  is the ability to understand the  meaning  of  verbal stimuli. This may involve  listening comprehension,  reading comprehension  as well as  sentence comprehension  . Inductive reasoning, also known as  induction, is a kind of  reasoning  that constructs or evaluates general  propositions  that are derived from specific examples. Inductive reasoning contrasts with  deductive reasoning, in which specific examples are derived from general propositions.

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