Thursday, August 1, 2019
Determinants of Intelligence Test Scores
Determinants of intelligence test scores Heredity Is the passing of traits to offspring (from its parent or ancestors)? This is the process by which an offspringÃ cellÃ orÃ organismÃ acquires or becomes predisposed to the characteristics of its parent cell or organism. Through heredity, variations exhibited by individuals can accumulate and cause someÃ speciesÃ to evolve. The study of heredity inÃ biologyÃ is calledÃ genetics, which includes the field ofÃ epigenetic. Social Refers to a characteristic of livingÃ organismsÃ as applied to populations of humans and other animals.It always refers to the interaction of organisms with other organisms and to their collective co-existence, irrespective of whether they are aware of it or not, and irrespective of whether the interaction isÃ voluntaryÃ orÃ involuntary. Education In its broadest, general sense is the means through which the aims and habits of a group of people sustain from one generation to the next. Ã Generally, it occurs through any experienceÃ that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, or acts.In its narrow, technical sense, education is the formal process by which society deliberately transmits its accumulatedÃ knowledge,Ã skills,Ã customsÃ andÃ valuesÃ from one generation to another, e. g. instruction in schools. A right to education has been created and recognized by some jurisdictions: Since 1952, Article 2 of the first Protocol to theÃ European Convention on Human RightsÃ obliges all signatory parties to guarantee the right to education. At the global level, theÃ NationsÃ¢â¬â¢ InternationalÃ of 1966 guarantees this right under its Article 13.Maturation Maturation is the process of learning to cope and react in an emotionally appropriate way. It does not necessarily happen along with aging or physical growth, but is a part of growth and development. A situation a person must deal with at a young age prepares them for the next a nd so on into adulthood. Maturation does not stop when physical growth ends Ã¢â¬â it continues through adulthood. An adult who loses a parent, for instance, learns to cope with a new emotional situation that will affect the way he or she deals with ituations that follow. physical factor A factor in theÃ a bioticÃ environment that influences the growth and development of organisms or biologicalÃ communities. Personality psychology Is a branch ofÃ psychologyÃ that studies personality and individual differences. Its areas of focus include: * Constructing a coherent picture of theÃ individualÃ and his or her major psychological processes * Investigating individual differencesÃ¢â¬âhow people are unique * InvestigatingÃ human natureÃ¢â¬âhow people are alike PersonalityÃ¢â¬ can be defined as a dynamic and organized set of characteristics possessed by a person that uniquely influences his or herÃ cognitions,Ã emotions,Ã motivations, andbehaviorsÃ in vario us situations. The word Ã¢â¬Å"personalityÃ¢â¬ originates from theÃ LatinÃ persona, which meansÃ mask. Significantly, in theÃ theatreÃ of the ancient Latin-speaking world, themaskÃ was not used as a plot device toÃ disguiseÃ the identity of a character, but rather was a convention employed to represent orÃ typifyÃ that character.Personality may also refer to the patterns of thoughts, feelings and behaviors consistently exhibited by an individual over time that strongly influence our expectations, self-perceptions, values and attitudes, and predicts our reactions to people, problems and stress. In a phrase, personality is not just who we are,Ã Gordon AllportÃ (1937) described two major ways to study personality: the nomothetic and theÃ idiographic. Nomothetic psychologyÃ seeks general laws that can be applied to many different people, such as the principle ofÃ self-actualization, or the trait ofextraversion.Idiographic psychologyÃ is an attempt to u nderstand the unique aspects of a particular individual. The study of personality has a broad and varied history in psychology, with an abundance of theoretical traditions. The major theories include dispositional (trait) perspective, psychodynamic, humanistic, biological, behaviorist and social learning perspective. There is no consensus on the definition of Ã¢â¬Å"personalityÃ¢â¬ in psychology. Most researchers and psychologists do not explicitly identify themselves with a certain perspective and often take an eclectic approach.Some research is empirically driven such as dimensional models based onÃ multivariate statisticsÃ such asÃ factor analysis, whereas other research emphasizes theory development such asÃ psychodynamics. There is also a substantial emphasis on the applied field of personality testing. In psychological education and training, the study of the nature of personality and its psychological development is usually reviewed as a prerequisite to courses in abnormal or clinical psychology. Abilities associatedSpatial visualization abilityÃ orÃ Visual-spatial abilityÃ is the ability to mentally manipulateÃ 2-dimensionalÃ andÃ 3-dimensionalÃ figures. It is typically measured with simpleÃ cognitive testsÃ and is predictive of user performance with some kinds ofÃ user interfaces. Verbal fluency testsÃ are a kind ofÃ psychological testÃ in which participants have to say as many words as possible from a category in a given time (usually 60 seconds). This category can beÃ semantic, such as animals or fruits, orÃ phonemic, such as words that begin with letterÃ p. 1]Ã The semantic fluency test is sometimes described as the category fluency test or simply as Ã¢â¬Ëfreelisting'. The COWAT (Controlled oral word association test) is the most employed phonetic variant. Ã Although the most common performance measure is the total number of words, other analyses such as number of repetitions, number and length of clusters of words from the same semantic or phonetic subcategory, or number of switches to other categories can be carried out. 4] Verbal comprehensionÃ is the ability to understand theÃ meaningÃ ofÃ verbal stimuli. This may involveÃ listening comprehension,Ã reading comprehensionÃ as well asÃ sentence comprehensionÃ . Inductive reasoning, also known asÃ induction, is a kind ofÃ reasoningÃ that constructs or evaluates generalÃ propositionsÃ that are derived from specific examples. Inductive reasoning contrasts withÃ deductive reasoning, in which specific examples are derived from general propositions.
Posted by Gloria Sweet at 10:02 PM