Wednesday, October 30, 2019

A short REPORT On Frederick Winslow Taylor Essay

A short REPORT On Frederick Winslow Taylor - Essay Example He developed philosophies based on shop-management, earning him the title, â€Å"Father of Scientific Management.† In the steel company, Winslow had noted a trend among the workers. He noticed that some of the workers were lazy, and not working to their abilities. This had a negative effect on the output of work, therefore reducing the company productivity. This compelled Winslow to develop a task management system, which he used to handle work in an objective manner and determine the efficiency and productivity of work in the company. This idea bore Winslow’s Principles of Scientific Management (NetMBA; â€Å"Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856-1915)†). In 1911, Fredrick Taylor published his work, The Principles of Scientific Management. Taylor developed four principles to apply to work. This was after spending years doing different experiments to prove his principles. In the first principle, Taylor recommended that the rule-of-thumbs method in work, be replaced with new methods that employed scientific study of different work. His second principle suggested that training of workers should not be left to be their individual responsibility. However, this responsibility should be left to the managers who should recruit, train, and ensure the active personal development of the workers, while ensuring the use of scientific methods. In the third principle, Taylor suggested that company management should perform a follow-up on the workers through their supervision, in order to ensure that the workers adhere to the prescribed methods, which are scientifically oriented. In the last principle, Taylor recommended that the company workload should be equally distributed between the employers and the workers. However, the employer, who is the manager, will be charged with work involving scientific management of the company in planning work, while the employees are tasked with executing the tasks. Taylor’s scientific principles of management aimed at increasing productivity and efficiency of work. Instead of apprenticeship, scientific management called for segmentation of work into different parts that could be performed by different unskilled people after short trainings (Daft, 2009; Taylor, 2003; Taylor, 1947). Taylor developed the term soldering to refer to the underperformance of workers, which he linked to the workers’ belief that if they work effectively, some of them risked losing their jobs. Underperformance of workers was also because of the poor wages they were subjected to. Employees therefore felt that effectiveness in their work would result in exploitation, as wages were not paid according to the workload performed. Finally, the rule-of-thumb method of working employed by workers was less effective as it resulted in low work output. In his time studies, Taylor believed that every work type could be planned properly to increase its productivity. He however thought that his scientific management was more effec tive as compared to the old â€Å"initiative and incentive† method, which was used to motivate workers. His arguments were that, in the initiative and incentive method, the workers were only motivated and increased productivity, but the whole responsibility of planning and executing work was wholly left for them to perform. On the other hand, the scientific management method provided the opportunity for both work productivity and work planning to be performed in the best ways by

Monday, October 28, 2019

Distancia Amingo Essay Example for Free

Distancia Amingo Essay It was mid-afternoon. I could see faces along the road. I knew they were Iskolar ng Bayan; I assumed. They are for sure coming from different Bicol provinces. I was in a hurry to cross the lane. I was nearly bumped by a jeepney. Ano, magpapakamatay ka na? The driver shouted. Aw nano na costumbre, I murmured. I did not know whether he got the right person or I got a wrong way, either. After I crossed the pedestrian lane, I stopped and thought it over. Suddenly, a tricyle passed by. Distancia Amingo, as I have read the inscription on the board of its back. Keep distance, I told myself. I, most of the times, was waiting for and taking a ride in a jeepney every time I am going to office, church, mall, and even bar hopping. Jeepney becomes a public transportation of Legazpenos and other neighboring places. We are comfortable to call it as dyip or jeep. Indeed, my previous experience constructs a new concept that helps me out to observe, describe, and take note its technical and cultural background. What can you say? Jeepneys are originally made from US military jeeps, which military left them behind after ended the World War II instead of paying to ship the vehicles to America. A jeepney is a 12- to 16-passenger vehicle fashioned from second-hand military Jeeps used in the Philippines as public transportation. The term comes from a combination of the words Jeep and jitney, meaning small bus following a flexible schedule that carries passengers on a regular route. Over the years, the jeepney has grown to become one of the most prevalent means of transportation in the Philippines,† said Jacob Hendriks, eHow contributing writer. Today, it becomes the most common means of public transportation among provinces in the Philippines. Indeed, its name tags the Filipinos culture. If you could notice before you step up there are some slogans down the stair. Take note; you will perhaps frown or laugh at after reading it. Basta driver, sweet lover, this is an authentic example. It is not doubtful if passengers got smile when they have pleased to seat on the tukawan, I connote. On the other hand, this slogan simply speaks of machismo. In contrast, drivers could be described as polygamous by nature aside from being gentlemen to passengers. Perhaps, the status of their employment would attest that in some cases they coincidentally found women at night while they went to driving. I don’t think if some of them got concubines, which could be the cause of love quarrel between him and his wife. I think this is the reason why some of them had encountered accident that is suicidal. Forgive me if I got the wrong concept. At the back of the driver seat, you can read, Barya lang po sa umaga. We cannot deny that many times we forgot to pay our fare using coins early in the morning. Dai akon sensilyo; that’s it when driver asked. We cannot deny that we never allow ourselves to follow this simple rule; yet, when we demand good services from the authority basically our blood pressure seems to explode. High blood? so to speak. On the other hand, there are drivers who cheat. When you handed him more than the expected fare sometimes they forgot or meant not to return your change. I did not say that they are all cheaters because there also some of them who are honest. The moment you forgot, they screeched their wheels back. I also did not say that they are not angry when passengers count their change. Maski arog ako kaini, dai ko kaya manluko nin tawo, one time a driver murmured towards me. Feeling close, my flirt mind commented. Fasten your seat belt; you can read this line when you sit beside the driver’s seat. Sometimes, it is written as, fasten your sit belt. At first, I was annoyed; but, at the end, I realized that this line is the result of linguistic imperialism. We should forgive the perpetrator. We should not point our fingers to the driver because the nature of his work does not qualify to plead him guilty instead we will blame his teacher. It could be his parents as first teachers at home. It could be his teachers in the school, where learning takes place. Exactly, his learning experience constructs meaning as influence of constructivism. The good side is; he is not just a driver, but a skilled worker. This is the real substance of education shaping a person to be productive developing his potential to a defined skill. I was already inside the jeepney where I listened to the song entitled, Jeepney by Spongecola. What a coincidence, I said. Hush. Listen to the song. Bumaba ako sa jeepney/Kung saan tayoy dating magkatabi/Magkahalik ang pisngi nating dalawa. The verses describe how the lovers explicitly unveil their relationship. Public display affection (pda); they said. Yes, it is expected that this is between man and woman. It could possibly be a man with a queer wo(man). That’s true; we do not impose racism here. You can laugh, but do not judge. Just say; this is the law of extreme reality. Pues, I can’t bear the moment without looking into the trend of courtship nowadays. I tell you; I am not against with them. I really feel sad when I see lovers in the jeepney showing inhuman behavior. We cannot blame older than us if they can’t tolerate themselves to put them into gossip because they destroy our good tradition. So, it is not surprising if women are being brutalized and raped because they become motif of original sin. Si’isay su relihiyoso an padi o an drayber? It becomes a joke; but, if we look at it as new perspective, tambay or bystanders would answer us, of course, the driver. If you can observe; the driver will not drive the jeepney without signing a cross. Yes, I agree, but he cannot do it without prior knowledge about his religious ways without the priests. When we destroy our conscience, our faith will be at stake. Faith in our people and faith in God, said Sen. Benigno â€Å"Ninoy† Aguino, Sr. In front of the jeepney’s mirror, you can see a small altar with an image of Virgin Mary. It becomes the icon of their salvation. Sometimes, they hang above it a bunch of fresh and fragrant flower, sampaguita, which they bought three for ten pesos from the young vendors. These vendors could be young boys or girls who seemed to be unfortunate. No child shall be left behind, as envisioned by the DepEd. Yet, the more the children are unfortunate, the more they are not able to go to school. I am sure there is something wrong in their home. I am sure there is something wrong in the system of the government. Along the front window you can notice the driver’s prayer embroidered as, God bless our trip. With this, I can say that the driver is a symbolic for hard work and these four words represent for prayer. This entails that when we work we should never forget to pray. Ora et labora; in English means, pray and work. This simply reminds us that we should balance our material needs and our spiritual need. When I got down the stair another jeepney passed by. I could read the inscription, In God We Trust. I can’t imagine how Bicolanos survive amid scarcity as a result of natural calamity. I presume; Bicolanos’ ways of living unfold the profound relationship with God. Ancient times indeed reflect how our ancestors passed on our good culture that defines our Bicolano identity. So, we have no reasons to smile. Starting today, we will keep distance when jeepney stops, but we will never lose hope when sudden misfortune comes because God never keeps us apart. He is just in our heart.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

The Importance of Ending Consumerism :: Environment Capitalism Essays Papers

The Importance of Ending Consumerism America is the world’s biggest and most earnest consumer. Within the national culture, there is a tremendous emphasis placed on the acquisition of goods, and subsequently, the cultivation of luxury. The American dream itself implies material gain, the pot of gold at the end (or top) of the socioeconomic ladder. Collectively and personally, Americans identify themselves through consumerist attitudes and practices. Ironically, the price of such consumerism is far greater than the simple cost of any given product; though not necessarily in terms of currency, but that of planetary expense. The harm done to Mother Earth is substantial both in its scope and rate of growth. Luckily, though, it is also avoidable. Clearly, one of the best ways to aid the environment is to eliminate excess. By excess, I mean the needless proliferation of products, elaborate packaging and the waste that such extravagances necessitate. The overuse of fossil fuels in production, waste products created by industry and the damage rendered to the landscape, all direct outgrowths of consumerist practices, contribute to the destruction of our most valuable resources, such as clean water, and air. Still, American society continues to heedlessly grow more and more materialistic each year. As a wealthy and powerful nation, we Americans seem to give credence to the philosophy that if we have the economic means, we should acquire all that we can. This ideology is merely the reflection of another: might makes right. Yet, our government is often intervening in foreign affairs which do not concern our country in an immediate sense; cases in which a weaker nation or group is being victimized by a stronger party, for example, U.S. intervention in the Bosnian conflict in the late 1990s. Thus the contradiction is established between our military or foreign policy and that of our economic patterns and practices. Truly, should not the environment be defended in the same fashion as the weaker nations to whose defense we rush as a matter of custom? The present state of the environment in America demonstrates an acute lack of foresight and an abundance of greed. Depressing though it may be, it is time that we, as nation, came together to truly evaluate the problem. Additionally, it is time that we eliminated the wheat from the chaff of our lives, the harmful luxury from the necessity.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Our generation Essay

Throughout the past couple of centuries, our world has changed over a period of time. Everything has changed; generations, the way we live, nature and so much more. History is created every day, and at every moment without even realizing it. Our culture is a huge part of our everyday environment that we do not realize how incredibly significant they influence our lives. There are many important elements that have changed American society; for example the television. Television can be used as a tool to motivate learning and to increase awareness of public issues. Social Interaction, education, culture, and criminal exposure are some of the key reasons to why the television has played a significant role in our lives. In today’s modern culture, television has played a big role throughout people’s every day lives. We depend on TV for entertainment, news, education, culture, weather, sports, and so much more. Without the TV, our social interaction percentage would be low; because of the lack of topics. People these days, talk about TV shows, movies, and more, and without it, a lot of people would be anti social. While television is often criticized for isolating people, it can also bring them together. For example, Super Bowl parties and other events in which people congregate around the TV. During the month-long telecast of March Madness, fans gather at work, in bars and other places to compare brackets, view college basketball games, and discuss the results. In addition, some TV shows invite viewers to share their opinions by calling in or posting comments. Televisions have influenced education and teaching practices. Educators have had to adapt and provide lessons that not only educate but entertain the learner. It has been shown that attention spans have decreased since the prominence of television. Reading is not seen in the same esteem as in previous generations. Studies have shown that public television programs emphasize literacy development. Using engaging characters and interesting stories, shows like â€Å"Sesame Street,† and â€Å"Sid the Science Kid,† motivate children to learn, while other specialty channels, such as â€Å"Animal Planet† and â€Å"Discovery Channel†, also provide educational content in an entertaining way. Television also provides cultural experiences, which can help broaden viewers’ perspectives and increase tolerance and appreciation for different lifestyles.TV has the ability to create powerful capabilities, TV allows people especially adolescents to share cultural experience with one another. Shows like â€Å"National Geographic,† â€Å"House Hunters International,† and â€Å"The Amazing Race,† focus on life in parts of the world that may be unfamiliar to most Americans. Even shows that concentrate their efforts in the U.S., such as â€Å"Diners, Drive-Ins and Dives,† and â€Å"House Hunters,† can improve cultural awareness by highlighting the foods, housing trends and customs in different regions of the country. Lastly, the impact of television also serves to expose criminal activity. According to a 2011 article in †Time† magazine, the television show â€Å"America’s Most Wanted,† was â€Å"an unprecedented collaboration between law enforcement and television,† and led to the capture of 1,154 fugitives as a result of phone tips from TV viewers. Kevin Perkins, an assistant director of the FBI’s criminal investigation division told â€Å"Time,† the agency captured 17 of its most highly-ranked fugitives and also solved over 550 cases as a result of TV viewer tips. Perkins also says that they’ve captured suspects within minutes of an episode airing on TV. Also the news; today these days, there are many news channels to inform us on what is happening around the world. Without the news, we would often wonder what is happening, despite the advantage of also having social media,it is often not reliable nor true. References: Time.com: The End of American’s Most Wanted: Good News for Criminals, Bad News for the FBI. To conclude., throughout the past hundred of years, our world has changed over a period of time; generations, the way we live, nature, and more. History is created ever day, and at every moment without even realizing it. Our culture is a huge part of our every day environment that we do not realize how incredibly significant they influence our lives. One important element; the television has changed American society. Social Interaction, education, culture, and criminal exposure are some of the key reasons to why  the television has played a significant role in our lives. Without the television, our generation would be a lot different.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Annotated Timeline: 1763-1783 Essay

1763: The Proclamation of 1763 was a royal directive issued after the end of the French and Indian War that prohibited settlement, surveys, and land grants west of the Appalachian Mountains. It was an attempt to organize western lands gained as a result of the 1763 Treaty of Paris and it appease Native American tribes who lived in the areas. British North American colonists resented being denied access to lands they felt they had fought for and won in the French and Indian War. 1764-Sugar Act: A law passed by British Parliament which raised taxes on foreign refined sugar, leading to a monopoly in the West Indies that was controlled by British sugar farmers. 1765-Stamp Act: An act proposed by the British Parliament to require the use of stamps for all official documents, or articles. The act met large amounts of opposition and was repealed in 1766. 1765: Stamp Act Congress: A meeting held in New York, after the Stamp Act. It was attended by some of the colonies’ representatives to devise unified protest against Britain. It is considered the first attempt of such ideas. 1766-Declaratory Act: Following the repeal of the Stamp Act, British Parliament reasserted its authority to pass laws on the colonies, even though they did not have representation. 1767-Townshend Duties: Charles Townshend taxed imported good from England such as, paper, lead, and glass. The taxes went straight to the British officials to make them better able to enforce British law. 1770-Boston Massacre: A riot that broke out in Boston due to the colonists disliking for the British troops. The troops fired on the crowd, killing several people. (Boston Massacre 1770) 1773-The Tea Act: An act from British Parliament that gave them a monopoly unfair to American tea merchants, which would lead to more tension. 1773-The Boston Tea Party: In response to the Tea Act, a group of angry colonists boarded a British boat and tossed barrels of tea into the harbor in protest during the night. (Boston Tea Party-1773) 1774-Intolerable Acts: A series of laws passed by England in attempt to punish Massachusetts for the Boston Tea Party. 1774-1st Continental Congress: A meeting of all colonies (excluding Georgia) that was held in Philadelphia after the Intolerable Acts to discuss ways to rebel against Britain, such as boycotting their trade. 1775-Lexington & Concord: The first military engagement between England soldiers and American colonists. American’s were on a mission to capture and destroy military supplies, but the British had learned of their plans, and moved the supplies elsewhere. 1775-2nd Continental Congress: A meeting of all colonies (excluding Georgia) that succeeded the 1st continental congress by having ideas of independence. By forming armies, appointing diplomats, and making formal treaties, the congress acted as the national government. (Continental Congress) 1775-Battle of Bunker Hill: After learning of British intentions of occupying the hills around Boston, 1,700 colonists attempted to fight off British troops, but had to retread due to lack of ammunition. 1775-Olive Branch Petition: An attempt to end bloodshed by sending a pact to King George, from the 2nd continental congress, stating that they will be loyal to him, if he repeals the Intolerable Acts. 1776-Common Sense: Written by Thomas Paine, Common Sense challenged the authority of the British government and the royal monarchy. The plain language that Paine used spoke to the common people of America and was the first work to openly ask for independence from Great Britain. (Common Sense-1776) 1776-Virginia Declaration of Rights: A document written to proclaim the inherent rights of man, including the right to rebel against an inadequate government. 1776-Declaration of Independence: A statement adopted by the continental congress that announced the 13 colonies regarded themselves as independent states, and no longer a part of the British Empire. 1777-Battle of Saratoga: A battle fought 9 miles south of Saratoga, New York. The American forces under Benedict Arnold and fellow commanders defeated the British General Burgoyne and laid the groundwork for the entry of France into the war on the American side. 1777-Articles of Confederation: The first constitution of the 13 American colonies. It would eventually be replaced by the Constitution of the United States. 1778-Treat of Amity and Commerce/Treat of Alliance: A commercial alliance signed in Paris between the United States and the French. The treaty was signed during the Revolutionary war. 1779-Virginia Statue of Religious Freedom: A document written by Thomas Jefferson stating that all people are entitled to practice any religion and worship any god of their choosing. 1781-Battle of Yorktown: Led by Washington and the French commander Rochambeau, British troops were defeated in Yorktown, Virginia, as it proved to be a decisive victory for America. (Battle of Yorktown-1781) 1783-Treaty of Paris: The treaty that ended the war between America and England. Spain, France, and the Dutch were awarded land as a result.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Free Essays on Mexicos Treatment Of The Zapatista Revolutionaries

Mexico’s Treatment of the Zapatista Revolutionaries The EZLN(Zapatista National Liberation Army) members get their name from the revolutionary hero Emiliano Zapata who fought in the Mexican Revolution {1910-1921},73 years ago.The remebrance of Emiliano Zapata has faded into the history books . The people who heired to the betrayers of Zapata are headed by the Institutional Revolutionary Party and President Ernesto Zedillo. Now, the heirs to Zapata have come back to claim what is rightfully theirs, which are the rights of having their own land, fair voting rights, and the right to equal representation within political affairs. The EZLN is established among the indigenous people who live in and around the jungle in Lacondona, east of the high plains of Chiapas. Chiapas is a very poor area. 41% of the population has no running water. 34.9% don’t have electricity. 63% of the people live in one room houses for large families. 19% of the labour force doesn’t have income and 67% of the labour force live on only minimum wage. Article 27 promises Land Reform in the constitution, yet nothing has changed here. Northern Mexico has developed factories and has become more industrialized, while in the south, it has been left a wilderness. The EZLN fears that NAFTA (North America Free Trade Agreement will keep Chiapas more isolated and inderdeveloped. The Zapatista area has around 32 rebel groups who refuse to acknowledge the Mexican or local government. They send representatives to the council that is in charge of organizing the rebellion, the Clandestine Revolutionary Indigenous Commitee. This is organized through a delegate based democracy. Its made up of delegates of from each town. Its responsible for the politics and organization of the EZLN and its highest power. â€Å"So we decided that there is no way other than to organize and rise up like this in armed struggle. So we began to organize ourselbes like that, secre... Free Essays on Mexico's Treatment Of The Zapatista Revolutionaries Free Essays on Mexico's Treatment Of The Zapatista Revolutionaries Mexico’s Treatment of the Zapatista Revolutionaries The EZLN(Zapatista National Liberation Army) members get their name from the revolutionary hero Emiliano Zapata who fought in the Mexican Revolution {1910-1921},73 years ago.The remebrance of Emiliano Zapata has faded into the history books . The people who heired to the betrayers of Zapata are headed by the Institutional Revolutionary Party and President Ernesto Zedillo. Now, the heirs to Zapata have come back to claim what is rightfully theirs, which are the rights of having their own land, fair voting rights, and the right to equal representation within political affairs. The EZLN is established among the indigenous people who live in and around the jungle in Lacondona, east of the high plains of Chiapas. Chiapas is a very poor area. 41% of the population has no running water. 34.9% don’t have electricity. 63% of the people live in one room houses for large families. 19% of the labour force doesn’t have income and 67% of the labour force live on only minimum wage. Article 27 promises Land Reform in the constitution, yet nothing has changed here. Northern Mexico has developed factories and has become more industrialized, while in the south, it has been left a wilderness. The EZLN fears that NAFTA (North America Free Trade Agreement will keep Chiapas more isolated and inderdeveloped. The Zapatista area has around 32 rebel groups who refuse to acknowledge the Mexican or local government. They send representatives to the council that is in charge of organizing the rebellion, the Clandestine Revolutionary Indigenous Commitee. This is organized through a delegate based democracy. Its made up of delegates of from each town. Its responsible for the politics and organization of the EZLN and its highest power. â€Å"So we decided that there is no way other than to organize and rise up like this in armed struggle. So we began to organize ourselbes like that, secre...

Monday, October 21, 2019

Drink Tap Water instead of Bottled Water Essay Example

Drink Tap Water instead of Bottled Water Essay Example Drink Tap Water instead of Bottled Water Paper Drink Tap Water instead of Bottled Water Paper Water is one of the most important natural resources in the world and it’s the major constituents of living matter where it serves different functions. This unique natural resources is very important to mankind in the sense that our existence depend largely on it availability. As important as this compound of hydrogen and oxygen may seem to us, its quality also matters to our existence. Water comes in different forms so as its usage. There are several means by which water can be supplied to various homes and industry for various purposes. One major way by which this supply is being achieved is via pumping of water to the consumer through a faucet known as tap, hence the term â€Å"tap water†. Other means by which water for consumption are supplied to the consumers is via bottled water, sachet waters, and water in large containers. TAP AND BOTTLED WATER Several benefits can be derived from each means of supply but tap water still remains the best sources of water supply for safe consumption and other domestic use even though there are several beliefs in regards to the use of bottled water as the best source of water for consumption (Wald et al, 2008). Researches has shown that dangers of using bottled water as major sources of water consumption outweighs its benefits, hence there is a need to enlighten the populace on why we ought to choose tap water over bottled water as a major sources of water for our consumption. Several environmental issues must also be considered in regards to our choice between tap and bottled water. WHY CHOOSE TAP WATER There are several benefits that are associated with the use of tap water compare to bottled water, this will be discuss under the following subheadings; health, economic and environmental aspects Health aspects A question we ought to ask ourselves before purchasing some bottled water is that â€Å"why should I pay more for a product whose quality is worse than water that flows from the faucet of my house†. Although the answer to the question might not be pointed to us immediately probably because we’ve not fall victim or experience the menace of health problems associated with bottled water, there is a need for us to know that this is no more a fiction but a reality. There is a lot of health issues accompanying the use of bottled and tap water 1. Tap water contains chlorine which is antimicrobial in nature; hence helps eliminate bacteria that may be in the water. Tap water is always tested for presence of microorganism which can cause gastrointestinal problems before being diseminated. Bottled water doesn’t contain chlorine hence a higher load of bacteria and the manufacturer don’t usually test for the presence of microorganism that cause gastrointestinal diseases. 2. There are guidelines that monitor the presence of Escherichia coli bacteria while there are no such guidelines in the FDA standards that check this in bottled water, hence a higher probability of developing the disease whenever it’s present in the bottled water. Purity and safety standards in regards to bottled water production and distribution is less stringent compare to that of the tap water simply because standard check is not always done on the products before it being distributed but this is not so in the case of tap water where it must be check against the standard before any distribution 3. Tap water must meet some health standards such as the absence of important toxic or carcinogenic chemicals or substance such as phthalate but this is not so in bottled water. This chemical has been found to have potential to leak from the plastics container used in bottled hence a higher risk of developing cancer later in life due to the accumulation of the chemical in the body. 4. Fluoridation of tap water can easily be done to provide people especially children with regulated amount of fluoride which helps in bone and teeth development. This also prevent against some dental disease such as dental caries because of the effect of the fluoride in teeth mineralisation. Bottled water is not fluoridated hence people that consume it are more prone to development of dental caries 5. Tap water contains other minerals which have been found to be very important for our growth. These minerals are also absorb from the gastrointestinal tract easily compare those from the food. The most important minerals found in Tap water are iodine, magnesium, chlorides and bicarbonates, iron and sulphates. Magnesium is best known to be an important element that helps maintain our immune system, ease tension within the muscles and helps lowered blood pressure. Chlorides and bicarbonates apart from being antibacterial in nature also aids digestive processes and helps keep our pH level within the normal range. Iron is very important to us, simply because it helps in the transportation of oxygen from the lungs to the other parts of the body while sulphate helps us to detoxify all ingested toxic substances. Iodine is one of the most important of all the elements simply because it helps prevent goitre and also aid thyroid function in the elderly. Environmental aspects There are several environmental issues surrounding the use of bottled water compare to tap water in recent times. One of the most important environmental issues in this regards is the issues of waste. Bottled water has been found to create unnecessary waste in form of empty plastic bottles, though these bottles can be recycled majority of them don’t eventually get recycled. Bottles used in bottled water are made from petroleum by-products, the inability to recycle most of them eventually lead to extreme or higher production rate from the petroleum resources ultimately leading to excessive rate of depletion of these non renewable natural resources. Bottled water also does not degrade easily creating a lot of space and landfill. Burning of these plastic used in bottled water will results in the release of petrochemicals substances which are dangerous to our health and are also responsible for the rapid depletion of the protective ozone layer, hence an increase greenhouse effect and global warming. The use of tap water will help reduce all these hazards associated with the disposal of bottled water and also help balance the ecosystem. Tap water can also help protect against the effect of fire outbreak when we make use of it in our community. The use of Tap water as a form of protection from fire outbreak has been considered to be one of the primary aims of water supply systems (CDC, 2007). This is because the system in which the water is being supplied through the faucet provides sufficient volume of water at high pressure which is one of the properties that gives it the ability to quench fire. Overall effect of environmental influence of bottled water is that it affects our planet negatively and do us harm. Economic aspect The increase use of Tap water will provide support for our economy simply because business or housing developments usually do not succeed without a safe and sustainable source of water supply. Considering the enormous potential benefits associated with the use of Tap water, it is critical to businesses’ day to day operations and activities. Most entrepreneur and employers usually consider the availability and the quality of water supply in a particular region before construction of their business construction of the company or facilities. It is also the main supply of water during the period of drought and even to those communities in the arid areas. Bottled water is always expensive and can even be considered to be for individuals in the middle and the upper strata in the society. The use of Tap water helps saves cost purchasing bottled water. Considering the economic cost associated with the use of bottled water, it can never be used for other purposes in which we use Tap water for such as washing of clothes, watering our lawns, and some other purposes in which we use water for. Tap water can also be consider one of the most important basic social amenity must have to be considered as a developed or developing community in the sense that it help reduce mortality rates, provide economic diversity, and increase productivity in the areas of industrialization and agriculture Conclusion Considering the health benefits, the economical and the environmental aspect of Tap water, it is very important that the use of Tap water is very important to our public health protection and quality of life. Bottled water offers no special benefits than tap water, then why should we pay more for something that put us at higher risk than the water flowing out of the faucets in our various homes. References Belew, B. (2009). â€Å"The truth-tap water is better than bottled water and better for the environment†. Greenpacks. Retrieved August 3, 2009 from greenpacks. org/2009/07/22/the-truth-tap-water-is-better-than-bottled-water-and-better-for-the-environment/ CDC, (2007). â€Å"Health on Tap: the value of Tap water†. Centres for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved August 2, 2009 from www. cdc. gov Petersen, B. (2003). â€Å"Iodine containing macromolecules in tap water and their importance for iodine intake and thyroid dysfunctions†. Projekt. Retrieved August 3, 2009 from http://vbn. aau. dk/research/iodine_containing_macromolecules_in_tap_water_and_their_importance_for_iodine_intake_and_thyroid_dysfunctions(15671)/ Owen, J. (2006). â€Å"Bottled Water Isnt Healthier Than Tap, Report Reveals†. National geographic news. Retrieved August 3, 2009 from http://news. nationalgeographic. com/news/2006/02/0224_060224_bottled_water. html Wald et al, (2008). â€Å"Health belief about bottled water: a qualitative study†. BMC Public health. Retrieved August 2, 2009 from biomedcentral. com/1471-2458/9/196 Water Quality Association (2009). â€Å"The bottled water dilemma†. Aqua Purity Plus Retrieved August 3, 2009 from aquapurityplus. com/water_dilemma. pdf

Sunday, October 20, 2019

How Racism Takes 7 Different Forms

How Racism Takes 7 Different Forms Racism refers to a variety of practices, beliefs, social relations, and phenomena that work to reproduce a racial hierarchy and social structure that yield  superiority, power, and privilege for some, and discrimination and oppression for others. It can take several forms, including representational, ideological, discursive, interactional, institutional, structural,  and systemic. Racism exists when ideas and assumptions about racial categories  are used to justify and reproduce a racial hierarchy and racially structured society that unjustly limits access to resources, rights, and privileges  on the basis of race. Racism also occurs when this kind of unjust social structure is produced by the  failure  to account for race and  its  historical  and contemporary roles in society. Contrary to a dictionary definition, racism, as defined based on social science research and theory,  is about much more than race-based prejudice- it exists when an imbalance in power and social status is generated by how we understand and act upon race. The 7 Forms of Racism Racism takes seven main forms, according to social science. Rarely does any one exist on its own. Instead, racism typically operates as a combination of at least two forms working together, simultaneously. Independently and together, these seven forms of racism work to reproduce racist ideas, racist interactions and behavior, racist practices and policies, and an overall racist social structure. Representational Racism Depictions of racial stereotypes are common in popular culture and media, like the historical tendency to cast people of color as criminals and as victims of crime rather than in other roles, or as background characters rather than as leads in film and television. Also common are racial caricatures that are racist in their representations, like â€Å"mascots† for the Cleveland Indians, Atlanta Braves, and the Washington Redskins. The power of representational racism- or racism expressed in how racial groups are represented within popular culture- is that it encapsulates a whole range of racist ideas that imply inferiority, and often stupidity and untrustworthiness, in images that circulate society and permeate our culture. While those not directly harmed by representational racism might not take it seriously, the presence of such images and our interaction with them on a near-constant basis helps to keep alive the racist ideas attached to them. Ideological Racism Ideology is a word that sociologists use to refer to the world views, beliefs, and common sense ways of thinking that are normal in a society or culture. So, ideological racism is a kind of racism that colors and manifests in those things. It refers to world views, beliefs, and common sense ideas that are rooted in racial stereotypes and biases. A troubling example is the fact that many people in American society, regardless of their race, believe that  white and light skinned people are more intelligent than dark-skinned people and superior in a variety of other ways. Historically, this particular form of ideological racism supported and justified the building of European colonial empires and U.S. imperialism through the unjust acquisition of land, people, and resources around the world. Today, some common ideological forms of racism include the belief that Black women are sexually promiscuous, that Latina women are â€Å"fiery† or â€Å"hot-tempered,† and that black men and boys are criminally oriented. This form of racism has a negative impact on people of color as a whole because it works to deny them access to and/or success within education and the professional world, and subjects them to heightened police surveillance, harassment, and violence, among other negative outcomes. Discursive Racism Racism is often expressed linguistically, in the discourse we use to talk about the world and people in it. This kind of racism is expressed as racial slurs and hate speech, but also as code words that have racialized meanings embedded in them, like â€Å"ghetto,† â€Å"thug,† or â€Å"gangsta.† Just as representational racism communicates racist ideas through images, discursive racism communicates them through the actual words we use to describe people and places. Using words that rely on stereotypical racial differences to communicate explicit or implicit hierarchies perpetuates the racist inequalities that exist in society. Interactional Racism Racism often takes an interactional form, which means it is expressed in how we interact with each other. For example, a white or Asian woman walking on a sidewalk may cross the street to avoid passing closely by a black or Latino man because she is implicitly biased to see these men as potential threats. When a person of color is verbally or physically assaulted because of their race, this is interactional racism. When a neighbor calls the police to report a break-in because they do not recognize their black neighbor, or when someone automatically assumes that a person of color is a low-level employee or an assistant, though they might be a manager, executive, or owner of a business, this is interactional racism. Hate crimes are the most extreme manifestation of this form of racism. Interactional racism causes stress, anxiety, and emotional and physical harm to people of color on a daily basis. Institutional Racism Racism takes institutional form in the ways that policies and laws are crafted and put into practice through societys institutions, such as the decades-long set of policing and legal policies known as â€Å"The War on Drugs,† which has disproportionately targeted neighborhoods and communities that are composed predominantly of people of color. Other examples include New York City’s Stop-N-Frisk policy that overwhelmingly targets black and Latino males,  the practice among real estate agents and mortgage lenders of not allowing people of color to own property in certain neighborhoods and that force them to accept less desirable mortgage rates, and educational tracking policies that funnel children of color into remedial classes and trades programs. Institutional racism preserves and fuels the racial gaps in wealth, education, and social status, and serves to perpetuate white supremacy and privilege. Structural Racism Structural racism refers to the ongoing, historical, and long-term reproduction of the racialized structure of our society through a combination of all of the above forms. Structural racism manifests in widespread  racial segregation and stratification on the basis of education, income, and wealth, the recurrent displacement of people of color from neighborhoods that go through processes of gentrification, and the overwhelming burden of environmental pollution borne by people of color given its proximity to their communities. Structural racism results in large-scale, society-wide inequalities on the basis of race. Systemic Racism Many sociologists describe racism in the U.S. as systemic because the country was founded on racist beliefs that created racist policies and practices, and because that legacy lives today in the racism that courses throughout the entirety of our social system. This means that racism was built into the very foundation of our society, and because of this, it has influenced the development of social institutions, laws, policies, beliefs, media representations, and behaviors and interactions, among many other things. By this definition, the system itself is racist, so effectively addressing racism requires a system-wide approach that leaves nothing unexamined. Racism in Sum Sociologists observe a variety of styles or types of racism within these seven different forms. Some may be overtly racist, like the use of racial slurs or hate speech, or policies that intentionally discriminate against people on the basis of race. Others may be covert, kept to oneself, hidden from public view, or obscured by color-blind policies that purport to be race-neutral, though they have racist impacts. While something may not appear obviously racist at first glance, it may, in fact, prove to be racist when one examines the implications of it through a sociological lens. If it relies on stereotypical notions of race and reproduces a racially structured society, then it is racist. Due to the sensitive nature of race as a topic of conversation in American society, some have come to think that simply noticing race, or identifying or describing someone using race, is racist. Sociologists do not agree with this. In fact, many sociologists, race scholars, and anti-racist activists emphasize the importance of recognizing and accounting for race and racism as necessary in the pursuit of social, economic, and political justice.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Organizational Behaviour Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words - 2

Organizational Behaviour - Essay Example The theories started a heated debate that is yet to cool down. While some managers and scholars perceive them to be helpful and practicable, others are asserting that the theories are just that- theories, and nothing more, and that they are not being used in real life (Foster, 2013). This paper, with a distinct focus on two companies; Google and WL Gore, will try to explore the validity of that statement. The paper will first discuss the employees’ state in both of these companies and the management activities and then try to tie or explain them using the various employee theories on motivation, participation, satisfaction and motivation. If the managerial actions and employee behavior can be explained by the theories then the statement that they are mere theories will have been disproved. Managerial Actions and Employee Motivation and Performance In this fast changing business and economic environment, intellectual capital and knowledge have become very important for every ma nagement team. The employees are increasingly being viewed as the most important assets of the business (Chubb, 2008). The managers are frantically making efforts to attract and keep their best talents. Many do this by providing incentives- monetary or otherwise. Theory X and Y of motivation provide useful insight into the nature of employees and what is likely to motivate them. They also empower their employee in order to increase job satisfaction and enhance self-actualization. The following two companies provide some useful insights into the role of management in enhancing employee motivation, empowerment and performance. The first one is WL Gore started by Bill Gore in 1958 and Google started by Larry Page and Sergey Brin. WL Gore and Associates This is a hi-tech company that has specialized in manufacturing products from fluoropolymers; fabrics and electronic connectors. As at now the company has ventured into various markets including the industrial, medical, pharmaceutical an d electronic markets. Over the past ten years it has had average revenues of US $2.5 billion in sales. It was started in 1958 and to date it boasts of having around 10,197 employees spread in over 80 countries worldwide. It has featured in the Fortunes ‘Best place to work’ list for the last 15 consecutive years (Liberman, 2013). The company is said to be one of the America’s best performing because it has consistently based its practices on tested and tried employee theories. Festejo (2012) asserts that WL Gore has the unique and world’s best collaborative system in the world; the lattice organization structure. This system is designed to promote employees’ performance and job satisfaction. For instance, the system has no hierarchical structure they are organized into teams; this means there are no bosses to provide supervision. The employees are expected to be self driven and motivated to work. The company utilizes the goal theory by requiring the employees to set their own targets to meet in a specified period of time. However, they have team leaders known as sponsors to provide guidance (Liberman, 2013). The employees, known as associates, set the objectives for the company and try to achieve them and at the end assess one another’s performances. The employees enjoy a great deal of flexibility as

Friday, October 18, 2019

Should same-sex marriage be legalized Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Should same-sex marriage be legalized - Essay Example The reproduction objective of sex can be met only through the sex between a male and female whereas in order to achieve psychological pleasure, sex can be performed even without a gender barrier. Lesbianism and Gayism were established in the contemporary society because of the changing concepts about sexuality. Same sex marriage is a common thing nowadays in most of the advanced societies (See appendix for more details). The call for legalization of same sex marriage is increasing day by day. â€Å"As of Sep. 15, 2010, gay marriage is allowed in five US states (MA, CT, IA, VT, and NH) and the District of Columbia whereas 30 states have constitutional amendments banning gay marriage† (Should gay marriage be legal?). This paper critically analyses same sex marriage and tries to answer the question; â€Å"Should same sex marriage be legalized or not† â€Å"A benefit to heterosexual society of gay marriage is the fact that the commitment of a marriage means the participants are discouraged from promiscuous sex† (Bidstrup). Proponents of same sex marriage argue that sex related diseases can be reduced a lot by encouraging same sex marriage. Normal sex has little meaning in same sex marriage. In normal marriages, sex is often performed even without the mutual agreement. Either the husband or wife, at times performs sexual activities mechanically in order to satisfy the partner. Such mechanical or forceful sex relations are less in same sex marriages. Same sex married couples always perform sexual activities with the mutual consent and hence both the partners can enjoy the sexual pleasure whenever they engage in sexual activities. Sex has nothing to do with the reproduction. Reproduction has only secondary importance in sexual life considering the importance of psychological pleasure derived out of the sex activities. Psychological dimensions of sex are more important than the physiological or reproductive dimensions of sex. Sexual

ETHICS PAPER Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

ETHICS PAPER - Essay Example To begin with, one should point out that the role of a strategic plan is to outline the principles that will guide an organization in the long term perspective. It is quite obvious that if a company adopts principles that are unethical, the result will be disastrous: it will be a target of criticism of the public and the entire business as at risk. Contrary to that, if ethical principles were enshrined in the course of developing a strategic plan, then it will allow an organization to find the correct solution to every problem that it faces. In addition to that, the concept of social responsibility is the one that is closely tied to application of ethical principles in a strategic plan. Indeed, the force that should drive an organization to improve one’s performance and make it more sustainable is the acknowledgement of the impact that it has on the social environment and accepting responsibility for these actions. This means that such a strategic plan would urge the organization to minimize its negative impact on the environment in case it has any. Moreover, it will provide effective ways to adjust the current practices in order to make sure that the performance does not cause any damage. However, it must be noted that while applying ethics and accepting social responsibility, the company should also take into consideration the needs of stakeholders. By definition, stakeholders are the people for whom certain actions make essential difference (Freeman, 2010, 44). One should keep in mind that stakeholders are often found not only inside an organization, but outside of it as well. That is why the most essential part of developing a strategic plan that would be both ethical and socially responsible is not to overlook needs of any stakeholders. This means that a company should carry out an objective investigation of the state of affairs and identify the primary

Thursday, October 17, 2019

A movement in American history Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

A movement in American history - Term Paper Example Therefore, drawing on a variety of sources the paper will discuss the Anti-Vietnam War movement of the l960s. On January 20, 1961, John F. Kennedy became the 35th head of state of the United States of America. During that time, there were continuous revolutionary attempts to topple the American backed South Vietnamese government by the communist National Liberation Front (NLF). By December 31, 1960, there were already more 900 military personnel in Vietnam (Bowman 20). President Kennedy’s administration provided more help to South Vietnam, including American military advisers and soldiers. During that same year, the Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) was formed and it became a crucial force during the Anti-Vietnam War campaign in the 1960s. By 1962, the combat troops had doubled. American involvement increased further when the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution gave President Kennedy more power to increase military presence in Vietnam. In 1965, regular combat soldiers were deployed. Proponents of the Vietnam War argued that by turning the Vietnamese nation into a communist state it would imply that the anti-communists would be losing the Cold War. In other words, the involvement of America in the war was a way of preventing the communist takeover of South Vietnam. While South Vietnam was supported by the U.S and other anti-communist allies, North Vietnam was supported by China and the Soviet Union, as well as other communist allies. The NFL, a communist front in the South, fought in favor of the North Vietnam. Supporters of the war asserted that communism was a threat to free governments and America was protecting its national interests (Bowman 34-37). The protests against the Vietnamese War were very few at the beginning. However, as the Vietnamese War continued to gain intensity; public disenchantment also escalated. The Americans were growing tired of the increasing war casualties together with

See Order Instructions Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

See Order Instructions - Research Paper Example Everyday police officers face different challenges and experiences that expect them to make decisions on how to handle the situation individually without involving additional advice or immediate supervision, and this is the heart of police discretion. In law enforcement, Hassell and Archbold (2010) argue that the police officer has the mandate to make judgments or reasonable decisions within certain legal bounds. Police officers face a wide range of options especially when confronted by dangerous situations. Some of their decisions have been misconstrued as misconduct and a good example is the use of excessive force. External and internal mechanisms affecting police discretion involve the lack of agreement on the exact criminal behaviors that law officers should use in discretion. As a result, there is no evident legal discretion of the criminal actions requiring discretion. However, there are control mechanisms including Internal and external control mechanisms, control by citizens, legislative controls, and control by courts. Analysis A study by Palmiotto and Unnithan (2011) posits that more attention remains on the need to prepare police officers for the appropriate use of discretion. These preparations begin at the training school in the academy continuing later to their field practice. According to the trainings, the use of discretion is critical mainly after an event or on regular basis.

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

A movement in American history Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

A movement in American history - Term Paper Example Therefore, drawing on a variety of sources the paper will discuss the Anti-Vietnam War movement of the l960s. On January 20, 1961, John F. Kennedy became the 35th head of state of the United States of America. During that time, there were continuous revolutionary attempts to topple the American backed South Vietnamese government by the communist National Liberation Front (NLF). By December 31, 1960, there were already more 900 military personnel in Vietnam (Bowman 20). President Kennedy’s administration provided more help to South Vietnam, including American military advisers and soldiers. During that same year, the Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) was formed and it became a crucial force during the Anti-Vietnam War campaign in the 1960s. By 1962, the combat troops had doubled. American involvement increased further when the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution gave President Kennedy more power to increase military presence in Vietnam. In 1965, regular combat soldiers were deployed. Proponents of the Vietnam War argued that by turning the Vietnamese nation into a communist state it would imply that the anti-communists would be losing the Cold War. In other words, the involvement of America in the war was a way of preventing the communist takeover of South Vietnam. While South Vietnam was supported by the U.S and other anti-communist allies, North Vietnam was supported by China and the Soviet Union, as well as other communist allies. The NFL, a communist front in the South, fought in favor of the North Vietnam. Supporters of the war asserted that communism was a threat to free governments and America was protecting its national interests (Bowman 34-37). The protests against the Vietnamese War were very few at the beginning. However, as the Vietnamese War continued to gain intensity; public disenchantment also escalated. The Americans were growing tired of the increasing war casualties together with

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

The effect of Salbutamol on the response of Ileum to Acetylcholine Essay

The effect of Salbutamol on the response of Ileum to Acetylcholine - Essay Example This clearly implies that there is no significant effect of sulbutamol on the way the ileum responds to acetylechline. However, there is a significant effect of the sulbutamol on the way ileum responds to nicotine. This desensitisation was purely characterised by increasing values of EC (50) of nicotine without a change in its maximal effect. This thus implies that treatment of ileum with salbutamol after exposure to the acetylcholine, had little desensitisation while treatment of ileum with salbuamol after exposure to nicotine caused some larger increase in the Nicotine-mediated phoshoinositide hydrolysis. Response to question 2. Salbutamol could be referred to as an adrenergic agonist receptor, which is used to reduce the effects of bronchospasm in diseases like asthma. It is also used in the treatment of cystic fibrosis, pulmozyme, acetylcysteine, and iprptropium that is linked to DOK-7. As an example of a beta2-agonist, sulbutanol can also be used in obstetrics. The salbutamol th at is intravenous could be utilised as a tocolytic in relaxing the smooth muscles of the uterus, and hence delay premature labour. This has made sulbutamol be the most preferred agent. In the context of this experiment, salbutamol antagonist’ caused a parallel shift of the given dose response curve.

Monday, October 14, 2019

Radisson Hotels Essay Example for Free

Radisson Hotels Essay Radisson Hotels defines their service guarantee very clearly through five strategies that must be focused on. These strategies are a focus on the customer, to provide individualized marketing and services, to develop hotels in key locations, to leverage the Carlson companies, and to strengthen global brand presence (Schroeder, 2006). One of the key ways that the Radisson Hotels implements their service guarantee is through the Yes I Can training program (2008). This program empowers the front line employees to take of situations for the customer without long chains of command to deal with first. This program encompasses the organizations service philosophy and allows the front line employees to meet the needs and wants of the individual customer. In an organization of this magnitude utilizing fully integrated technology is a necessity in todays fast paced and global society. Radisson Hotels found that by utilizing a world wide reservation system, which provided instant access to availability at any of the Radisson locations worldwide (2008). This made reservations much simpler for the customer, travel agents, and businesses trying to book rooms in multiple places on a regular basis. Since this was the first of its kind, it gave Radisson Hotels a competitive advantage. Technology can also be utilized to accelerate the improvement of service quality through what Radisson Hotels calls the Customer KARE System. This system allows employees of any of the worldwide Radisson Hotels to access information on customer service expectations of specific customers. This allows the customers to receive the same service that they had expected at any other Radisson that they had stayed at. This system also allowed the marketing department to instantaneously notice trends and other demographic information for certain geographic locations. Radisson Hotels has implemented an Express Yourself (Schroeder, 2006) pre-arrival check in system to allow customers the convenience of checking in without spending time at the front desk. In order to improve measurement of customer service, Radisson Hotels could implement a self check out computer system that asks a few quick quality and service questions as the check out process is completed. Radisson Hotels could also implement a call back to ensure the customers received what they were expecting once their stay is completed. This would help to solidify loyalty out of a customer because when the customer knows that the hotel cares enough to call and make sure they were satisfied without any provocation, the customer is more likely to continue staying at those hotels.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Literature Review discussing British Petroleum’s environmental effects

Literature Review discussing British Petroleum’s environmental effects Societies today, more than ever, are faced with more complex and environmental problems with the proliferation of technological advancement as human populations mounts. It is paramount for large energy companies to balance the needs of stakeholders  [1]  and demonstrate their intent of environment stewardship. In BPs strategy on their corporate website, they state their goals for value creation while producing affordable energy that is secure and doesnt damage the environment  [2]  . In other words, this means progressing forward through the expansion of their energy production while bearing in mind the impact of their activities on the environment. This, in essence, illustrates BPs stance on sustainability and their environmental awareness. Policy of environmental awareness in British Petroleum Environmental awareness is defined as a broad philosophy and social movements with respect to the environmental conservation concerns and improvement in the state of the environment. It ties in with the responsible initiatives that demonstrate a corporations commitment to key environmental and safety issues. Recently, BP has came under the spotlight following the April 2010 explosion aboard the Deepwater Horizon rig which killed 11 people and caused one of the worst oil spills in history  [3]  . Given its status as one of the worlds largest energy providers, this catastrophe has brought about a lot of clout over BPs environmental and safety practices. Subsequently, this led to exhaustive investigation that revealed inadequate controls and incompliance with major aspects of offshore drilling safety. As a result, BP announced its commitment to continue working with government officials and other operators to identify and boost industry-wide safety measures  [4]  . Nevertheless, BP publicizes a sustainability report annually to demonstrate their sustainability efforts in action while aligning themselves to their environmental policy. BPs policy follows a fundamental belief that it can make a difference in the world  [5]  . It strives to be the local energy company by the production of energy with minimal impact on the environment. New initiatives have been launched to incorporate benefits to the local community and help in establishing its position as a responsibility energy provider. For example, BP has invested around $1billion  [6]  annually in low-carbon energy in the last 5 years, putting them well positioned in reaching their commitment of $8 billion  [7]  by 2015. In light of climate change, BP showed recognition to the significance of climate change. Its environmental policy embraces legislation changes and aligns the firms sustainability actions to ensure environmental stewardship. This includes stringent protocols imposed to ensure that all projects and operations are designed and conducted in accordance with legal and internal environmental standards  [8]  . For example, BPs major operating sites today are all certified under the international environment management system standard ISO 14001  [9]  , demonstrating the huge strides in minimizing their environmental impact. According to BPs sustainability review report 2009, it demonstrates BPs awareness of their responsibility as a major energy provider to manage the environmental impacts of energy production and consumption. They have led a programme of action that have since brought about reduction of 7.9 million  [10]  tones of greenhouse gas emissions from their operations. BP actively seeks out new environmental technologies and methods to reduce the environmental impact of providing energy  [11]  . For instance, it has developed technologies such as wide azimuth tower streamer (WATS)  [12]  that enables BP to discover reservoirs previously obscured and maximize recovery and efficiency of their exploration activity. Initiatives taken by BP to Sustainability Issues BP operates according to strict internal control systems that extend from board-level policies to operational process to ensure businesses conduct their business responsibly  [13]  . Over the years, they have progressed significantly in their environmental sustainability issues. Sustainability is defined as the capacity to endure. At BP, this definition is extended to include the renewal of assets, creation and delivery of better products and services that meet the ever-changing needs of society, attracting successive generation of employees, contribution to a sustainable environment and retain the trust and support of their customers, shareholders, and the communities in which they operate  [14]  . Initiatives for Climate Change With greenhouse gases rising at an ever increasing rate, governments are urged by the risk of climate change to introduce new measures to limit emissions. On this front, BP has outlined emissions assessments to enforce the most efficient environmental methods. This is executed through their proprietary framework for both developed and developing countries to commit to identify mitigating action and quantify emission targets  [15]  . In addition to that, the BP website  [16]  offers a myriad of environmental tools to provide transparency and insight into BPs environmental efforts and allow individuals to assess their own carbon footprint and lifestyle  [17]  . ISO 14001 and Environmental Sustainability BP follows the ISO 14001 environmental management standards and publishes a sustainability review to track its environmental sustainability issues. In the fiscal year of 2009, the organization has launched several initiatives in light of environmental sustainability. Notably, one of these initiatives is BPs stance and support on carbon pricing. They firmly believe that the provision of carbon price will make energy conservation a more attractive venture and encourage investments in alternative energy space to cut down the carbon usage in organizations. Moreover, BP has designed a plan of action in their environmental sustainability efforts by optimizing their own operations towards a more energy efficiency model and had led in the creation of new products to lower customers carbon footprint  [18]  . Their drive in the former has saw the inception of projects such as the reducing flaring and venting, process optimization projects and waste heat recovery. This initiative will bring about a total reduction of about 7.9 million tonnes of carbon usage. In the latter, BP has worked in collaboration with Ford to engineer advanced Castrol lubricants  [19]  that sole advantage bring improvement in fuel efficiency and reduction in carbon dioxide emissions. Furthermore, BP has placed emphasis on building its low-carbon energy portfolio with substantial investments in biofuels, wind power and solar photovoltaic systems. Initiatives in the public domain Besides these programmes, BP is active in its participation of policy debate with its push to drive climate change at international and national levels. For example, they have signed the Copenhagen Communiquà © to demonstrate their support in the private sector call towards a long term ambitious, robust and equitable global deal on climate change  [20]  . These measures have paved the way in BPs efforts to measure the environmental sustainability issues. Last but not least, BP has been a generous contributor in research programmes in particularly on climate change and low-carbon options. These include several high profile research such as the Carbon Mitigation Initiative at Princeton University  [21]  , its collaboration with Chinese Academy of Science on the Clean Energy Facing the Future programme  [22]   as well as the Energy Initiatives launched at MIT and Caltech. BP Commitment to Health and safety measures BP is committed to seek out improvements in its safety performance through the implementation of procedures and processes in pursuit of their mission statement of no accidents and no harm to people  [23]  . In light of the 2010 Gulf oil spill disaster, BP has came down upon a lot of scrutiny with respect to its safety practices. As a result, the organization announced its commitment to continue working with government officials and other operators to identify and boost industry-wide safety measures  [24]  . Improvement and Initiatives made In wake of the Gulf of Mexico disaster, BP announced its decision for an overhauling reorganization that would give safety a higher priority. This first measure implemented saw the creation of a new safety division  [25]  that would preside over the companys operations. This division will use a systematic approach to seek improvements in safety performance through promoting safe operations and upping their efforts on process safety. BP is also shifting away from the use of contractors in light of the accident which caused 11 deaths of rig workers. Despite outsourcing certain functions to contractors, BP is still the company that is solely responsible for the accidental damages. On top of these changes, BP is currently assessing its executive bonus scheme that puts more weight to financial and operational targets. This new restructured bonus schemes would take into account more on key safety measure to align employees objectives to its safety practices. This will help improve the health and safety practice by perpetuating its safety culture to yield results. For example, BP reviews employee views on various dimension of safety with the Pulse plus survey  [26]   to achieve continued progress in integrating safety into their business. Furthermore, BP has launched an internal safety awards to foster pride in attaining BPs values. This recognition on the importance of safety across all aspects would further elevate BPs profile of safety  [27]  and help rebuild the trust in BP. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and British Petroleum Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is defined as a concept whereby companies integrate social and environmental concerns in their business operations and in their interaction with their stakeholders on a voluntary basis  [28]  . Today, CSR is more relevant than ever, in particularly for a large energy company such as BP that engages in the exploration and production of oil. CSR is often debated as the appropriate actions that companies should take that goes beyond its philanthropic efforts and delves further into the fundamental question of how companies produce their goods and provide their services  [29]  . At BP, CSR is recognized as the primary responsibility to maximize the value of the firm and operation of the company in accordance with the norms and values of its shareholders  [30]  . This broad notion as defined by BP reflects its concern about the operating environment, its license to operate within it, which provides the impetus for BP to undertake a broader role in societal affairs  [31]  . BPs CSR practice and Workforce Welfare BPs CSR involvement goes well beyond than just minimizing its emissions. According to the corporate website, BP is involved in their contribution to policy debate, supporting research and development for newer, cleaner technologies in power and transport  [32]  . Besides that, this also includes the consideration of building business skills of the local people through community based development programmes, supporting education and giving aid to local organization. In the instance of building business skills, BP has ran a range of programmes designed to build the skills and impart knowledge on supply chain management to geographical locations like Azerbaijian, Indonesia, Trinidad and Tobago. This programmes helps accomplish a win-win situation for both parties, providing local companies with the expertise and know-how while enabling BP to source goods and services locally. This sharing of technical expertise extends to local governments where BP draws from their expertise and glo bal reach to support local governments in the development of their economic sustainability. For example, BP funded an EU-based think tank, to consult the Azerbaijian Ministry of Economic Development on macroeconomics analysis, economic planning and policy formulation  [33]  . BP is also active on supporting education, investing in resources to build strengths in management education. A case in point is the post-graduate degree in energy law in Angola that BP played a vital role in the development and financing, while working alongside governments, state oil company and academia  [34]  . They have offered educational resources such as books, classrooms, teachers training and management training. BP have delivered immunization exercises for the Tangguh community and educated the local residents on reproductive health and personal hygiene. Their active involvement resulted in a plunge in malaria prevalence from 23% in 2000 to less than 1% in 2009  [35]  . As a result of BP CSR practices, many of these communities and villages have been provided with better facilities such as rainwater harvesting systems and villagers are able to substantial improvement in their workforce welfare. BP Building a sustainable talent pipeline BP has a clear understanding that people are fundamental to the success of business operation. Over the years, they have focused their efforts on building a sustainable talent pipeline  [36]   where they recruit graduates and trained them from the ground up to progress their career into roles that could help maximize their contribution to the business. Cross culture and Diversity Cross culture issues simply refers to the issues that involve dealing of two or more different cultures  [37]  . BPs understanding of cross culture issues can be reflected in their commitment to build a diverse organization, where people of different cultures are embraced to foster an environment that is collegial and respectful. They firmly value a multicultural workplace and embed diversity and inclusion across the organization. BP runs a global diversity council where diversity plans are established and tailored accordingly to each strategic performance unit (SPU). Here, the diversity plans sets specific targets and organizes networking events for affinity groups whereby certain sub-sets of employees can network and exchange experiences. For example, BP currently has the BP Womens International Network; the BP Pride group for homosexuals; BP Global Reach Group; BP Gray Matters and the US-based BP Asian, African-American and Latino networks  [38]  . The availability of such affinity groups demonstrates BPs understanding of cross cultural issues and practice of diversity. Within these affinity groups, members come together to discuss key issues and learn from each other. These groups would provide them with an informal setting to build their network and gather contacts. The BP Womens International Network, for example, is a global network with a sole purpose of connecting women and encourage women to stay with BP to fulfill their career goals  [39]  . This openness of BP with its core focus on diversity and inclusion is certainty a strategy that will enable its success in the 21st century global marketplace  [40]  . It leverages diversity exemplified by gender, race, ethnicity, nationality, language, sexual orientation and identity, religion, and tribe, among other things-while preparing itself for the future by continuing to diversify its employee base  [41]  . Ultimately, BPs diversity practice will inevitably help spur innovation, creativity and a deepened awareness of diversity and inclusion concepts  [42]  . Comparative analysis with key competitors In this task, I will seek to do a comparison of BPs equal opportunity and diversity practice with its key competitors such as Shell and Conoco Phillips. BP At BP, the equal opportunity and diversity practice consists of three basic tenets which are (i) fair treatment and equal employment opportunity; (ii) respectful, harassment-free workplace; and (iii) privacy and employee confidentiality  [43]  . These tenets strive to draw from BPs diversity as strength to create an environment that fosters mutual trust whereby diversity and inclusion are valued. BP follows a policy that fair treatment, courtesy and respect are entitlement given to every employee and would show no tolerance for offensive and belligerent behavior. The last tenet is a rule that protects the confidentially of their employees personal information. Royal Dutch Shell Similarly, Shells motto is to embed diversity and inclusion (DI). They firmly believe that this would help create a stronger future for Shell and help achieve their aspirations. Shell defines the management of DI to involve addressing the factors of difference and fully capitalizing on the potential contribution of all employees to continue to build their leadership in place. At Shell, DI is seen as a competitive advantage that will enable Shell to cultivate a competitive culture  [44]  . On the equal opportunity front, Shell also emphasizes their position as an equal opportunity employer that strives to recruit based on technical and competencies. ConocoPhillips At ConocoPhillips, a similar stance on diversity is taken where the company strives to represent and reflect the global communities in which we live and work  [45]  . They stand by the creation of an inclusive environment that respects contributions and differences of every individual  [46]  . Here, the same catchphrase of Diversity and Inclusion encompasses the creation of a multicultural work environment, together with an inclusive culture to ensure individuals contributions and differences are respected and valued  [47]  . In terms of equal opportunity aspect, ConocoPhilips wholly supports the principle of equally opportunity in employments and welcomes applications from all suitably qualified individuals  [48]  . Conclusion To conclude, this report examines the many responsibilities that falls on a large organization like British Petroleum (BP). Given its status as one of the worlds largest energy providers, BP has demonstrated their sustainability efforts in action while aligning themselves to their environmental policy. Over the years, they have launched several initiatives to tackle their sustainability issues and progressed significantly in their environmental awareness. This includes initiatives for climate change, imposition of ISO 14001 environmental management standards and initiatives in the public domain. In the wake of the Gulf of Mexico disaster, a comprehensive overview of their safety practices and social responsibilities initiatives are examine. This details the contribution and improvements made in the improvement of workforce welfare in geographical locations such as Azerbaijian, Indonesia, Trinidad and Tobago. Finally, this segues to a discussion on the cross-culture issues at BP and its practice of diversity. The last bit of the report is a comparative analysis of the equal opportunity and diversity practices in BP and across its key competitors.

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Essay --

There is a beautiful marriage between technique and meaning in poetry. If one can fully probe the configuration of poetry; one will see this marriage. Their mind will be seduced by the words, their heart ensnares by its gist, and finally by way of the poem literary devices can be captured involuntarily. A great model of the essence of this relationship is the classic poem â€Å"Harlem† by Langston Hughes. In this poem, the author approaches the universal despair of dreams being deferred and underlines the fallouts of it. His precise techniques that influence this poem help it emerge into a metaphorical warning statement about dreams becoming disregarded in life. The author’s specific uses of similes and metaphors allows for interpretation by his readers regarding the main idea behind his poem, and in this essay I will examine how these literary techniques help to ameliorate the author’s meaning. The use of similes in â€Å"Harlem† creates a serious mood and emphasizes the theme. In the beginning of the poem the author asks a question about what will happen to a dream when deferred. The simile...

Friday, October 11, 2019

Men Makes Better Teachers Than Women

Men Make Better Teachers than women (Just for comment)The simple answer is women should teach by men teacher and boy should teach by women teacher so both are study interestingly and paying attention on their subject so students get a good marks I will discuss in general view about men make better teachers than women and in my point of view both are good and bad. There are many characteristics, techniques and other factors that make a successful and exemplary teacher. These may be varied as the teachers themselves.However, there are certain time-tested attributes, characteristics, practices and environmental actors which contribute immensely to teacher success. The main topic of today is to be categorized as Teacher-Personality and Attitude, Teacher-Student Psychology and Teacher-Institute Relationship and who can be teach better men and women? If teacher doesn’t have knowledge and clear concept of his teaching he shouldn’t teach. There are some cases that, a teacher ma y be a good student in his class but he cannot be a good teacher. Good teacher requires communication skills and Teacher-Student Psychology between students and teachers.A teacher also a good friend of you. He understand the nature of students either they are in mood of study or not and how should I convey my knowledge to students in a fun or serious, in story or in joke. That’s make the teacher best that he/she understand the student on their level and if some students asks any question he/she try to understand that what students want to say and try to clear this concept on his mind. One thing also play a big role in class, â€Å"Teacher-Personality and Attitude with students†. There are certain personality characteristics and attitude issues which will help a teacher excel at his/her work.It is widely believed that if a teacher is presentable, he/she will give a good impression to the students especially in the first few days of the class. This indicates that the tea cher is taking his/her job seriously and acting professionally and the students eventually will appreciate that. In addition to looking presentable, the teacher’s personality in class plays a big role in how efficiently the class will be conducted. It is essential that the teacher send the right signals to the students so they will understand the basic rules in the class. A teacher also should active and energetic, some teachers are good in nowledge but they don’t have much communication skills with student in the result, the students are sleeping in the class and they don’t much concentrate on that subject. According to my point of view I generally categorized the teacher in different situation that are: An average teacher just tells the students that what did they do? But, A good teacher explain the students that how did they do? And also, A very good teacher demonstrate the students that like this way they can do? And a great and best teacher inspires you, he gives motion to student to achieve the target for not be a good student but also a very good person in community.That teachers are very rare today that they sincere with their students and wish they always done a best in every field of life. A famous quote â€Å"In every successful student behind a teacher, and in failure a strict teacher† So that’s reason our villages people don’t study more because teacher treat them strictly and they prefer work instead of study. The teacher who follow these things it is a good teacher either it is women or men. But in my personnel point of view a man teacher is more best then women teacher because he behaves sometime strict and he doesn’t compromise with their students as women teacher.

Thursday, October 10, 2019

Ceceros on moral duty Essay

Man is endowed with reason where unlike animals, he is able to understand how things come about, and be able to interpret how causes relate to the effects. From there, the man will be able to draw conclusion and relate the current and the future appropriately. In most cases man will try to look for a truth and the necessary changes in life to adapt with the situation. It is no doubt that man has a feeling for order, politeness and moderation in life. It is because of this that moral goodness is worth all respect and by all means, we appropriately maintain it. The moral right emanate from the four sources. These sources include; Its concern with the full development of the true intelligent, its concern about the conservation of the organized society, its greatness ant power of a dignified and unbeatable spirit, or its concern with the orderliness and the moderation of all that is said and done. Clearly, one is able to observe the real truth in any given sources, and when he can detect and explain the reasons behind it then he will be able to wisely understand it The other virtues, is set to provide and maintain such things where the practical business of life relied on such that there will be conservation of the relation between man to man in the society. In that case the dignity of man will be improved to help them increase their superiority to these things. However, the orderly behavior and the self control have their sphere in the section of things where a certain amount of physical effort is required. For example, if we develop a certain amount of propriety and order to the daily activities the moral rectitude and the moral dignity will be conserved. The interest of the society should be best conserved, and kindness be shown to every person in relation to the proximity of his relationship. However, it is important to trace back into their eventual sources that nature has established among men. The first principle is found in the connection between members of the human race, and the bond of connection is reason and speech which through the process educating reasoning associate men and unite them together.

Coastal management

THE LOBBY and several bedrooms parted company with the Holbeck Hall Hotel yesterday, leaving half of the four-star establishment behind. Engineers said heavy rain this spring after several dry summers was the probable cause of the landslip, which has sent sections of the hotel toppling into the North Sea. The north-east wing of the 30-bedroom hotel collapsed into Scarborough's South Bay on Saturday night. Guests had been evacuated early on Friday after huge cracks appeared overnight. The rest of the east wing gave way yesterday, leaving the hotel barely half intact, but what remains is likely to be demolished. Geologists say the east Yorkshire coast, with it's steep clay cliffs, has always been vulnerable. South of Scarborough, the 40-mile stretch of cliffs of Holderness is the fastest-eroding coastline in Europe and is experiencing the worst land-slips for 40 years. But Mr Michael Clements, director of technical services for Scarborough council, said sea erosion was not a factor in the Holbeck landslip. The cliffs below the hotel are protected at their base by a sea wall. The main problem, he said, was probably heavy rain which penetrated layers of sand and gravel in the cliffs, lubricating the clay which had cracked in hot weather. â€Å"There is a long history of cliff movements in the area,† Mr Clements said. â€Å"According to local records, the first Scarborough spa was carried away by a landslide in 1770, while the Holbeck cliffs suffered a major slip in 1912. Cliff stabilisation schemes were carried out further north at Whitby in the 1980's and at Robin Hood's Bay in the 1970's. In the fishing village of Staives, the breakwaters were recently raised. Pressure for further protection has run up against the obstacle of expense. â€Å"The cost of protecting these cliffs is phenomenal.† Mr Clements said. â€Å"The work at Whitby cost à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½3.4 million.† Most developed areas around Scarborough have seawalls but this is not the case further south, where Mr Eddie Knapp, principal engineer of Holderness council, said there had been â€Å"unusually large and particularly worrying† land losses over the past six months. â€Å"The average rate of erosion is 6ft a year but this year it has been up to 65ft in places,† Mr Knapp said. At Skirlington, 65ft of land has recently fallen into the sea, carrying away 23 bases at a caravan park, while 70ft of land has gone at Aldbrough caravan park, leaving 15ft of unfenced land before a 60ft drop into the sea. A family living in a chalet at Atwick, near Hornsea, was rehoused when the cliff edge came perilously close. Mrs Sue Earle, chairman of the Holderness Coast Protection Committee, is to outline local concerns in talks at the Agriculture Ministry today. Mrs Earle, whose farm-house is 30ft from the cliff edge at Cowden, said: â€Å"Now that this has happened in a nationally-known resort, I hope it will help to bring the issue out into the open. Daily Telegraph, 7.6.93 South Coast subsiding as the sea level rises By Christine McGourty, Technology Correspondent PART of the south coast of England is sinking at a rate of almost an inch every five years, according to new research. The find comes from an analysis of tidal measurement data from 1962 until about 1985 by Portsmouth University researchers. The higher tide measurements were thought to be a combination of subsidence and rising sea levels. Discovery of the subsidence à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ from Portsmouth to Newhaven à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ follows evidence from around the world that global sea levels have risen by four to six inches over the past 100 years. The subsidence will add to the problems expected from the sea level rise associated with global warming. Sea levels on the south coast are expected to rise by at least eight inches by 2050. Dr Janet Hooke, director of the university's river and coastal environment research group, said: â€Å"Most previous studies showed the subsidence was confined to East Anglia. This is the first analysis to show that parts of the south coast may be subsiding too. The movement may have origins back in the last ice age.† Malcolm Bray, one of the researchers, said at the Institute of British Geographers' annual conference in Nottingham: â€Å"It seems frightening. â€Å"What we're doing now is to work out what it means for the local authorities affected. â€Å"We can't stop flooding à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ that's an act of God à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ but we may be able to minimise the impact through coherent local and regional strategies. â€Å"We need to study the coast over longer distances and look slightly further into the future to stop authorities doing something that could have detrimental effects on their neighbours. â€Å"Our research shows that some parts of the coast are independent but many parts are interconnected.† They found the stretch from Lyme Regis to Newhaven could be divided naturally into nine â€Å"coastal cells†. Dr Hooke said: â€Å"Some preventative measures need to be taken now while the opportunity is there. â€Å"We don't want to see building on very vulnerable zones, which could just create problems for the future with flooding and erosion. â€Å"Plans may be needed to manage conservation of wetlands which are particularly vulnerable.† The researchers welcomed the Government's strategy for coastline management, announced last October, and said that more coherent analysis of longer stretches of coastline were needed all around the country. * Navy beans, from which baked beans are produced, could be grown in England if the global temperature rises as predicted in the next century, according to a study. Researchers at Coventry University and Horticultural Research International have found that navy beans could be grown in Hampshire, East and West Sussex and Kent if the temperature rose by just 0.5C in the next century. The climate is too cold at present for navy bean crops and most are imported from America and Canada. Daily Telegraph 8.1.94 Erosion-hit resorts pin hopes on reef of tyres By Richard Spencer and Lynda Murdin RESIDENTS along the fastest eroding coastline in Europe are hoping a plan to dump millions of tyres in the sea as a protective reef will be given the go-ahead by the Government. Villages and the resorts of Withernsea and Hornsea on the Holderness coast in Humberside are in danger of slowly falling into the sea. If the Ministry of Agriculture grants a licence for the trial tyre-reef scheme, it could lead to one of the most ambitious coastal engineering projects in Europe since the Dutch reclaimed its polders from the other side of the North Sea. The area from Hull to the low, muddy cliffs of the Humberside coast has always suffered erosion. Spurn Head, the spit of land which juts out into the Humber estuary, has been washed away and re-formed six times in recorded history, while many villages already lie underwater. But, in the past five years, the pace of change has rapidly increased. Some homes have been abandoned and farmers are seeking compensation for loss of land and buildings. The Humberside trial would submerge a bank of 1.5 million compressed tyres bound with nylon and concrete into a tangle of ropes six or seven metres high, 110 metres long and 60 metres wide. Placed up to 1,000 metres offshore, it would be tested for its stability, effects on local currents and pollution. If it worked, the full scheme could place more than a billion tyres in seven, two-kilometre long strips all the way up the coast. Humberside County Council accepts that such an ambitious project is unlikely to go ahead quickly – possibly not even this decade. In the meantime, the coast depends on smaller schemes under the supervision of Holderness Borough Council. The most recent, at the village of Mappleton, was opened with fanfares four years ago but, while it has saved the village, it has also caused resentment. Other villages say that it has accelerated the rate of erosion elsewhere by preventing the protective sand that drifts down the coast from reaching the beaches. It raised expectations that other schemes could be put in place, hopes the Government dashed in 1993 with a review of policy imposing new environmental and financial demands. The Department of the Environment is expected shortly to approve a controversial à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½4.5 million, 1,000-metre sea wall around the North Sea gas terminal run by BP and British Gas near Easington. A full plan, which would also have protected the village, was turned down by the department. Mr Robin Taylor, Holderness's director of development, said this appeared to be because under the new guidelines schemes had to prove not just â€Å"cost-beneficial† but to be in the national interest. Saving gas supplies probably was, saving villages not. Mr Ambrose Larkham, who owns the Easington Beach Caravan and Leisure Park, is demanding a public inquiry. â€Å"The ludicrous thing is it is almost as cheap to build 1,600 metres while the equipment's there as it is 1,000,† he said. Mr Taylor said: â€Å"The question of why we are protecting the terminals and not the people of the village is likely to become very controversial. The issue is whether we should be protecting multinational companies and not our own residents.† But Mr Geoffrey Twizell, terminal manager for British Gas and himself a resident, said: â€Å"We are happy to contribute to any scheme that meets everyone's aspirations. Nobody would be talking about any protection at all for Easington if it weren't for the gas terminals here.† Daily Telegraph 1.4.95 Essex drops its guard to let nature take its course By A J McIlroy A TACTICAL retreat could be the answer to coastal erosion on the Essex coast, Government engineers have decided. Contractors from the Ministry of Agriculture and English Nature yesterday lowered the sea wall to flood 21 hectares at Tollesbury Fleet on the Blackwater Estuary. The area is being restored to salt marshes intended to absorb the power of waves that have been pounding artificial sea defences. If the experiment succeeds it will be extended along the Blackwater and to other saltwater estuaries. Roy Hathaway, of the Ministry of Agriculture's flood and coastal defence division, said tracts of coastal marshes were lost when drainage engineers in the 17th and 18th Centuries built sea walls to reclaim land for farming. Now, as a result of the gradual rise in sea level, many of the hundreds of miles of sea wall are crumbling. These are costing millions of pounds to repair, a financial burden that is â€Å"becoming increasingly hard to justify†. He said that to encourage private landowners to accept coastal flooding, the Government had written a â€Å"saltmarsh option† into its set-aside programme, the European Union measure to take farmland out of production. In exchange for allowing their land to become inter-tidal again, farmers would receive à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½190 per hectare per year for grassland and à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½500 for arable land. The payments are guaranteed for 20 years. Mr Hathaway said the ministry was working with conservation groups to maximise the gain to wildlife by restoring the salt marshes. Daily Telegraph 5.8.95 SHORING UP THE COASTLINE By John Hodder THE PRETTY little Suffolk town of Woodbridge was snoozing under a cloudless sky, with a soft breeze taking the sting out of the sun. I gazed out over the placid surface of the River Deben. It was midday in midsummer and this was quiet, gentle England at its most benign – the sort of place, the sort of time that makes it hard to feel threatened by anything, let alone the forces of nature. Twenty-four hours later I was on the beach at Dunwich, 20 miles to the north. The conditions were not very different – the same blue sky and hot sun, cooled now by a rather more blustery wind coming off the sea. But here the threat felt very real – probably because here it is very real. Dunwich is at the mercy of the elements, as it has been down the centuries, and the cliffs just carry on crumbling. If the sea is left to its own devices over the next 70-odd years, the shoreline will retreat by about 200 metres. That, at least, is the experts'projection. Projections, of course, are not the same as firm predictions. But they underline what the problem is – in this case, chronic erosion. The first and obvious question is: â€Å"What can be done to stop it?† The second and much more taxing one is: â€Å"Should anything be done to stop it?† Neither question has an easy answer. If Dunwich is not simply to be abandoned to its fate, a difficult balance will have to be struck between its interest and those of its neighbours. Coastal protection is a tricky science. Nobody knows that better than Roy Stoddard. His title is senior engineer (coast protection) with the Suffolk Coastal District Council and it was to pick his brains that I had gone to Woodbridge. His job is to oversee the 30-mile stretch of coastline from Felixstowe to Southwold, an area whose sand and shingle beach is notoriously unstable when pounded by the waves of the North Sea. It has suffered grievously in a series of violent storms this century. The task of looking after it is now shared between the local authority and the National Rivers Authority (NRA), overseen by the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF). They work closely together and their common enemy is the sea. The approach to coastal protection has shifted significantly over the past 20 years. â€Å"‘Fight against the sea' was the message until the 1970s,† says Stoddard. â€Å"Now we are not trying to fight against it so much as to work with it, using its peculiar ways to destroy its own energy.† That shift in approach is reflected in marked changes in the sort of barriers now being erected to stem the apparently relentless advance of the waves. As a result, the traditional beach scene is changing. For example, the solid sea walls built behind the beach – and the wide promenades that have accompanied them since Victorian times – are now out of favour. Walls merely repel the waves: they do nothing to reduce their speed or power, which is now recognised as the key to the successful preservation of the shor e. Instead, efforts are being concentrated on protecting and building up the beaches themselves. Similarly, a profusion of timber groynes jutting out at right angles into the sea – the time-honoured means of defence and a common sight along this coast – is seen as far less effective than a few large, rock-based structures shaped like fish-tails. The old wooden ones are fine for leaning against while you have your lunch or sheltering behind on a cold, blowy day. But they are not good at sheltering the shore. The main problem with them -apart from their propensity to rot – is that they cannot be made long enough or deep enough to significantly slow down the incoming rush of water. Hence the move towards the new fish-tail variety. A series of these has been built at Clacton, 20 miles to the south of Stoddard's patch. He is now proposing to develop the concept further by building two similar groynes at Cobbolds Point in Felixstowe, using rock and concrete. Despite their size, which might be considered ugly and intrusive, few people dislike them, he says, and the arguments in their favour are compelling. By confronting the sea farther out they do much more to take the steam out of the waves before they reach the shore. And the farther out you go, the more shore you protect by creating two calm areas in the lee of the two wings of the â€Å"tail†. Thus you help to build up a long stretch of sheltered beach. â€Å"Fish-tailed groynes are many times the length of wooden groynes but you only need one about every kilometre rather than one every 20-30 metres,† says Stoddard. â€Å"As well as being more environmentally-friendly because they enable people to walk along the whole beach – something they couldn't do before, at least not without stepping over groynes every few yards. â€Å"They have another advantage over sea walls. If you build them and find they don't work as well as you'd like, you can pick them up and move them. You can't do that with a massive sea wall.† Stoddard sees the introduction of fish-tail groynes as a â€Å"soft-engineering solution† in contrast to the old â€Å"hard† solution of building walls, which is now seen as causing more difficulties than it solves. â€Å"The problem is that whenever you build a hard wall it is almost invariably accompanied by the beach levels falling. The sea is thrown back off the wall and drags the sand and shingle out. Sometimes the wall itself is undermined – you can shore it up but in time the same thing will happen again.† Solid walls are the most concrete (literally) expression of the view that you must at all costs protect the land against the sea. That view is now being challenged. â€Å"You have four options,† says Stoddard. â€Å"Do nothing, hold the line, advance or retreat. Ten years ago the general view was that everything that could be saved should be saved. Now people are far more aware that harsh decisions have to be made.† Such decisions have worrying implications for places like Dunwich. There, to stop the erosion, you would have to start building some form of protective structure along the beach: merely reinforcing the shingle bank is not enough to stop continuing inroads being made into the coast. So why the hesitation over doing something more effective about it? Simply this: the erosion of the cliffs at Dunwich has positive benefits for the beach immediately to the south at Sizewell. Dunwich's loss is thus Sizewell's gain: that is nature's way. It is a conundrum repeated all along the coast. â€Å"If you have got to save the cliffs at Dunwich, you've got to find alternative means of feeding the beach at Sizewell,† says Stoddard. â€Å"In the end, you have to say that there are some places you won't protect – and people have got to come to terms with that.† Such a hard-nosed attitude can stir up fierce emotions, not least because of the way it could affect both the people who live there now and those who would like to join them. Consequently, it has serious implications for local planners. Do you, for example, go on allowing people to build houses near the sea, thus continually extending the number of years that you have to go on protecting that particular bit of coast – probably at someone else's expense? Another issue arousing controversy is the question of compensation for landowners whose land is gobbled up by the sea. At the moment there is no provision for compensation – indeed, it was specifically excluded from the 1949 Coast Protection Act. But as Stoddard says: â€Å"How do you tell a farmer that his 500 acres of productive arable land would be far better as salt marsh? The question of compensation is going to have to be addressed very shortly.† The difficult questions roll in almost as relentlessly as the sea. I pondered them late at night as I walked the beach at Aldeburgh, with the wind strengthening from the north-east and the waves crashing on to the shingle. They were still nagging away later still, as I lay in bed listening to the roar on the shore just below my hotel window. The sound that had been so soothing in the summer sunshine had taken on a darker edge. Suddenly the forces of nature seemed far less benign. Leisurely progress coastal protection has developed piecemeal over the past 150 years, driven not so much by pure science as by the demand to fulfil social expectations. It was essentially that pressure which led to the widespread introduction of sea walls. From the mid-19th century wealthy Victorians sought the development of coastal resorts. To realise their leisurely ambitions, engineers were drafted in to build the walls and the promenades which went with them. Over the years it has become increasingly obvious that such a haphazard approach is unsatisfactory and that activity on one bit of the coast could have damaging effects on another. The need for greater planning and co-ordination, recognised in the 1949 Coast Protection Act, is now universally acknowledged: it will be reflected in the six new shoreline management plans that are being prepared for the whole of the east coast, from the Humber to the Thames. 26.8.95 From Compton's Complete Reference Collection Landforms that result from erosion, or wearing away of the land, make up some of the most scenic coastal areas in the world. Sea cliffs that border many rocky coasts are an example. These cliffs were created when pounding waves weakened the lower portion of the rock to the extent that parts of the cliffs above tumbled into the water, leaving a rock wall with rubble at the bottom. Solid rock shores that lack beaches are easily destroyed by the sea. Beaches consequently protect the shore. Sometimes groins (short piers that extend out into the sea from 30 to 200 meters, depending on the nature of the beach) are constructed to protect the shores from erosion. This has been done along the coasts of the Black Sea. In recent years, some beaches have been artificially restored with sand taken from the sea bottom or from nearby dunes. This has been done on many beaches in the United States and on the island of Norderney in the North Sea.